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NEW YORK, JUNE, 1885. 

Vol. IX.— No. (i. 

A Lesson on the Picturesque in 

lOopyrinhted. )8P5. by Spencer Bros,] 
Wc are not sure that what we are about 
to present can be rightly termed a Ummm. 
But grunting it may fall under a very 
broad definition of that word, it still 
must not he understood as intended 
to be n> lesson upon prficttcul pen- 
manship. It refers rather to an a-sthetic 
and ornanienlal phase of the art, and one 
quite distinct from its practical aspect , 
though sometimes strikingly illustrated in 
the penmanship of business men. But 
whether so found, or occurring in the handi- 
work of professional and artist penmen, it 
is a source of much enjoyment and interest 
to the iover of writing, and is not unworthy 
a few moments' thought and discussion. 

Diverse qualities characterize the writing 
of difTereut penmen. That of some is dash- 
ing, of some elegant, of others bold ; while 
of still others we say they write a picivresqiie 
Juind. It is this last mentioned quality in 
writing that we purpose to consider, and in- 
dicate, as clearly as we may, how those who 
dctiromay attain it. 

As to the meaning of the -word picturenque, 
the suflix estfiie has quite generally the sense 
of Ukf ; and this we take to be its import in 
the main, when picturesque is applied to 
writing. Picturesque we may therefore 
consider as equivalent to pieture-likr — that 
is, constructed like a skillful picture, and 
having a similar effect upon the beholder. 

Such being the nature of the picturesque 
in relation to writing, it will he neces-sary to 
turn our attention somewhat to the work of 
the artist as well as that of the penman. 
Now the painter, in producing his pictorial 
music, has three great chords to play upon, 
form, light and shade, and color. What- 
ever melody the penman produces must be 
drawn from the first two ; and as the pen- 
man caniiol introduce lights or vary them, 
but must take such as the paper affords, it 
is doubtful if his second string is more than 
half a string, after all. and fitted to strike 
the notes of shade only. From the limita- 
tions of bis art also, those chords have each 
a vastly narrower range of expression upop 
hiii instrument than upon the artist's. 

The penman's work uuiy therefore be like 
the artist's work in form and shaAe only. 
But, as the forms and shades which help to 
form the material of the artist are mainly 
derived from nature, while those which 
constitute the material of the painter are 
arbitrary and conventional, it is evident that 
it must he more in the arrangement and pro- 
portioning of mnlerial than in the material 
itself, that writing may become picturesque. 
This being so. the laws for the arrange- 
ment and proportioning of the constituents 
of a picture will afford us light as to how 
writing may be made picture-like in its ap- 
pearance, or pictures(pie. 

There is the law of %;h;w/);v— wbi<-li 
every school-boy now understutfds us ap]>li(>d 
lo ornamental art^wbich requires a )iart of 
a figure ou one side of a design to be 
balanced by a correspooding port upon the 
other. In pictorial art. however, that is, 
the art of picture making as distinguished 
from ornamental art, or the art of devising 
and executing ornaments, the law of Sj/m- 
metry, though not neglected, must be more 
or less concealed or disguised. A too rigid 
adherence to symmetry and balance con- 
duces to trimness and elegance, but is fatal 

lo the variety and freedom necessary to pie- 
turesqueness of effect. 

There is the law of Interckanfle. following 
which the artist produces a very striking 
and pleasing effect by a judicious placing of 
light upon dark, and dark upon light. 
There is also the law of Radtadon, some- 
times hinted at in the formation of a letter, 
or the design of an ingenious signature. 

But OS the penman can distribute only 
darks, and not lights, the law of Inter- 
change signifies nothing practicable to him ; 
and the limitations of his art in other direc- 
tions prevent his availing himself to any ex- 
tent of the law of Radiation. 

There is, however, one law for the con- 
struction of pictures, to which the penman 
in quest of a picturesque hand will do well 
to give heed, as he may derive from it a 
lesson more valuable for his purpose than 
from all the rest combined. This law is ex- 
ceedingly simple, but apparently not so gen- 
erally understood as some others. It is va- 
riously named by different authorities, as 
the law of Vrimijialitu, Hie law of Siihordi- 
•nation, and, we think, sometimes the law of 
Q-i-adatum. A union of tJie first term with 
the last — the law of Pi-incipality and Grada- 
tion— wo\i\d seem to furnish a designation 
more befitting. This law requires that a 
picture shall have its principal mass, its 
principal light, its principal shade, etc., and 
that the other masses, lights and shades 
should be subordinated, and decline in 
graded degrees of prominence from the 
highest to the lowest within the compass of 
the picture. 

Leslie says of this principle that it is an 
invariable one, and one from which "no 
departure can be found in the works of any 
great master after the maturity of painting." 
It is in truth an acknowledgment among 
lines and forms, lights, shades, and colors, 
of the facts of leadership and grades of ex- 

among men. 

It will be seen that the law just explained 
is one from which the student of the pic- 
turesque in penmanship may draw a valua- 
ble hint, and if he will turn to the produc- 
tions of those whose writing has a pictorial 
or picture-like effect, he will notice how 
they curry out the law. Some penmen will 
f(,ll..\\ il 11M fiirtlirr Iliiin tn miiUc' the first 


giving the enlarged capitals proportionately 
stronger shades, and taking care, perhaps, 
that one of them shall be made more con- 
spicuous than the Sometimes we meet 
with a piece of writing in which the opera- 
tion of the principle is extended not only to 
the capitals, but to the small letters also, 
making those at the beginning of a page, 
paragraph, line and word, larger, and with 
shade more emphatic. This modulation of 
forms and shades, when skillfully and taste- 
fully managed, prnduecs an effect very 
pleasing. The eye resting first on the lead- 
ing form and shade, is attracted thence to 
those next iu importance, with a glimpse of 
minor touches between ; and so on, passing 
from point to point, it circles about in a de- 
licious maze, ascending and then descending 
among sweetly caden«ed undulations of 
form and shade to the faintest touches. 

We have now considered the picturesque 
in the sense in wbi<-b it seems to be mainly 
used in connection with penmanship, and in 

which its study would be likely to be most 
fruitful. It is evident that it may exhibit 
itself in all degrees from the golden medium 
to the faintest suggestion on one hand, and 
to the picturesque, gone mad, ou the other. 
It is evident also that, in the light in which 
we have viewed it, the picturesque may he 
joined in the same baud with other qualities 
of style, and that we may have, for instance, 
the graceful picturesque, the elegant pic- 
turesque, the bold picturesque, and. if you 
please, the picturesque-picturesque. 

We employ the latter half of the last 
compound term in the sense abeady ex- 
plained, and the first half with the import 
which we understand writers upon art to 
usually attach to it. We have so far used 
tne word picturesque iu the broad sense of 
picture-like, or constructed on principles 
similar to those employed in producing a 
picture. The meaning of the word, how- 
ever, as applied by art authorities to a scene 
in nature, though included in our definition, 
seems to have a narrower significance, but 
still one from which we may derive a useful 

As they employ the term, it is generally 
connected with wildness, ruggedness, deso- 
lation, and decay. A mossy rock obtruding 
its jagged angles from a grassy hillside ; a 
rustic bridge across a atony torrent ; an ivy- 
clad ruin ; an old man leaning upon bis 
staff, would, in the sense we are now con- 
sidering, be picturesque objects. Things 
new and trim, in spick and span order, and 
in every way in good condition, are apt to 
haveiu little of this sort of picturesqueness. ' 

Now we conceive that the essence of this 
picturesiiue is not the roughnesH, rugged- 
ness, desolation and disorder, by tMrnnelvea, 
on the one hand, nor the want of that 
quality in the trimness, newness, and order 
alone, upon the other. May il not rather be 
the enhanced vaTiety and intensified con- 
trasts, or the lack of them, that makes and 
unmakes the picturesque in the classes of 
qualities referred to. Perfect and unbroken 
smoothness, trimness, and order are apt to 
present little of that variety and contrast, so 
valuable in art, while the opposite qualities 
often abound in them. 

In the ledge of rocks referred to breaking 
through the grassy hillside, what opposite 
characters do we see in the smooth, soft, 
gently curved face of the meadow, and the 
hard, angular, jagged forms of the rocks , 
and how the latter and their natural sur- 
roundings heighten the variety of the scene. 
If a ruin be utterly gone to decay il loses its 
picturesqueness ; but if a considerable part 
of it remain comparatively intact, the 
order, regularity, and art of the standing 
portion make us feel more deeply, by con- 
trast, the desolation, decay, and confusion of 
the remainder. But if the ruin has become 
so shaped by the mouldering hand of time, 
that, although still strong in contrasts, it 
lacks in variety, and is not in accord with 
the law of principality and gradation, it will 
be apt to lose in a large degree its pic- 
turesque character. 

If, then, objects in nature acquire this 
picturesqueness, in a large degree by their 
marked contrasts, while conforming to the 
law of principality and gradation (which we 
take to be synonymous with that of artistic 
variety), we have here another useful lesson 
as to how the quality of picturesqueness may 
be imparted to penmanship. The law of 
principality and gradation we have already 

considered in connection with writing ; we 
will therefore now turn to that of Contrmt. 

Opposite characteristics, qualities, and de- 
grees, observed together, apparently en- 
hance each otlier. If a thin man and a stout 
man be side by side, the one will appear 
thinner and the other stouter by the con- 
trast. A short man looks still shorter be- 
side a tall man, and the tall man taller. In 
nature the craggy sides of a mountain look 
still more wild and rugged if some placid 
lake spreads its smooth surface at its base, 
and the polished level of the lake makes a 
more marked impression upon the ob- 
server. In this way youth and age, smooth- 
ness and roughness, the soft and the hard, 
darkness and light, beauty and ugliness, 
every color and its complementary, and so 
on through the endless range of opposites, 
are, to the observer, mutually enhanced in 
each other's presence. An important 
source of the superior picturesqueness of 
the modern style of writing over tlie old 
round hands is in the contrast it affords be- 
tween shaded and light lines. To attain a 
IiiyJt degree of picturesqueness in shading it 
is of course requisite that the leading shades 
be vigorous and proniineiit — to furnish a de- 
cided contrast with the white page and to 
the fine lines — and there should he a due 
gradation, descending in strength to the 
lightest touches. 

A piece in which the shades are all of one 
form — as all straight, or all curving right- 
ward, or all leftward — may be graceful and 
attractive, but will lend to monotony, tame- 
ness. and unpicturesqueuess. without the 
introduction of some shades of a different 
form to give contrast. The t'n, d'n, and p'» 
will generally afford plenty of straight shades 
lo contrast with the curved ones of the cap- 
itals, without our giving much thought to 
that point ; but occasionally choice among 
different styles of the same letter may be ad- 
vanlageou.sly exercised to secure a right or 
Ici't shaded curve as needed for contrast at a 
particular place. 

Contrasts iu the direction of lines also 
conduces to picturesqueness, and a style of 
letter, or cross of a t, or finish of a word, 
that will furnish a curve running in a 
direction contrary to the slant of the 
writing, will, if introduced occasionally 
with judgment, have a happy effect. Too 
many capitals of the same class and similar 
form, occurring together, detract from pic- 
turesqueness. For this the same remedy 
may be applied as already prescribed to cure 
monotony in shading — that is, a judicious 
choice between the different styles of the 
same letter. 

By contrast a rough line will cause 
smoother ones near it to appear smoother. 

We do not advise penmen to seek very 
anxiously after roughness of execution, iu 
pursuit of the picturesque or any other 
quality ; but wc have seen bits of writing, 
the work of real masters, that seemed to ac- 
quire an added charm by a little unsought 
raggedness, occurring perhaps on one side 
of one or two broad shades or dashes. The 
old fiuill pen had n way of leaving touches 
of that sort, tending to the picturesque, but 
lamented and condemned, perhaps, by the 
skillful hands that made them. But we 
must not forget that while a touch of harsh- 
ness, like a single discord of music, may 
make the remainder of the piece lovelier by 
if the- roiiL'bU(>« is too prominent 
[cn r.-p.-iiti-i il imparts a pruvailirg 

t gTpT j>JU7,i>17vri^ ^ 


and rudeness to tlie 
wiirli, rentlering it ugly and repulsive. 

Ill considering picturesque Ha^diatin- 
g^uislied from syslcniatic writing, tlie lead- 
ing idert of ilie former is tanety, of the latter 
vniformitf/. Systematic pcnmonaliip aims to 
jtcciirc suini-ness in lieiglits, widths, shades, 
spncing. etc., so far na praclicahle, tbroiigb- 
oiil. Picturesque writing allows freedom 
and the exercise of tuste in varying these 
things, while conforming to the laws we have 
explained. Syslemntic writing is therefore 
simple, easily taught and learned, and should 
alonct><'in<iil<:i(<'il,c«])reiully with beginners. 
Pictiii' -iMi vMititt;, opi the other hand, 
pleii-:iiji . ii J- 1" Hm ryr. is Comparatively 
coin|>lr i!i ii iinl sliiiiildhctnught, 

■njviin.v .\ -ii|.i ' ■ I ■ ■ 'I -ysieinatic 

11 is liiiullv am.-..---.ii> Ui -aj Ihat the 
principles which we have been Hying to make 
clear in tlieir relation to script, arc of much 
grentor viilue in the production of engross- 
ing and pieces of ornaTiu-ntal penmanship 
generally, and, where uuderslandingly fol- 
lowed, will impart an HrtJHtic clTect often 
lacltiii-ii. «-nrk,M .-1:— 

Tlirsiil,|r, I u, !, ... I. ■■ !■■ ilin^' is OHC 

resju'clin- \\ li]< I > i' imi.:IiI be said, 

:iihI iiiii('i'<l WMiiliI n< < '\ h> I'l :ii<i for its 
complete ebicicbit lull ; bul we b;ive touched 
as well as we could the points that seenied 
to he the most promising of good for the 
lover of writing, purposely avoiding as un- 
profltable the line drawn mctapbysical dis- 
cussions into which the subject would easily 

Numerous illuslnilions might be intro- 
(bind with interest and profit, such as, of 
liie picluresiiue and unpieturesque in orehi- 
leeture. landscape, the human form and 
costume, and in the various styles of 
writing. With the two illu.striitive exam- 
ples herewith given wc must, however, 
cDnleut ourselve.s for the present. 

kindly lb:m olbors iind «h(U a striving 
effect is desired to be produced with shades 
the condensed banj^ is favor d le as bnnging 
them closer together than m the open 
hands, and a larger numbu ^Mthui the same 

But our lesson, if lesson it may be called, 
has now reached a length far beyond our in- 
tention, and we will close it with this bit of 
sentimental truth. It is through his appre- 
ciation of the picturesque that the penman 
allies himself to the artist, and walks arm in 
arm with him so far as the more circum- 
scribed character of his lu-t wil! permit. 
And- though he may not literally take bis 
foi-ms from nature, if he have an enthu- 
siasm for her and for his art, he may draw 
from her lessons and inspirations lielpful in 
his pursuit ; and thus it might almost come 
to be said, that to him. as well as to his less 
useful but more honored brother of the 

'• No rimk is tinrren. nad no wild ts wast© ; 
Nil slmpi) imeoutli, or savage, but in place 
Exeitusitn Interest, or assinnesaKrnee." 

L. P. Sl'ENCliR. 

Talking and Writing. 

There is uo denying the mournful fact 
that conversation is one of the lost arts. 
The few books which chronicle the inter- 
change of wit, sentiment, and wisdom 
among the great and bright minds of the 
last century only serve to show what a vast 
contrast there is between the talk of those 
days and of these. What sort of reading 
would the conservation of even our scholars, 
authors, statesmen, aud teachers of to-day 
make, if oiu' Johnsons had their Boswells, 

ck lb 111 a man with a real, original, dis- 
tinctive thought in bis brain. In this respect 
I suppose the world is very much as it 
always has been, for the men with great 
tboufrhts aud living Uioughts are always few 
and far bUn ecu. But the peculiar feature 
of the men of the present day is that, what- 
ver their thoughts may be. whether great 
or small, original or derived, immortal or 
transitory, they are uniformly committed to 
paper. The pen has attained such an 
ascendancy over the tongue as a means of 
conveying truth and inforaiation, that the 
test of a statement, an assertion, a theory, in 
these days can never be applied until it has 
been reduced to writing. Those things 
which would pass without ijucstiou, almost 
without thought, if uttered in conversation, 
find critics everywhere the moment they are 
condensed into so many drops of ink. 

Everybody wins his laurels in these dnys 
at the point of the pen. The thinker is no 
more dependent upon this little instrument 
for his bread and butter than the man of 
business, or the man of affairs. The poet 
aud the accountant both wield the same 
lance in the struggle for a competency. The 
mechanic would never know how much he 
owed the world, or bow much the world owed 
him, without bis pen, Aud it is the same in 
the realm of romance. The lover of to-day 
stammers and is dumb in the attempt tn rx 
prebs his devotion ; but give him a bolili ut 
"pale ink" and a box of pens, and \\!i;ii 
volumes of sentiment tlow fromhis liursiiiiL^ 
heart ! The gallant of the nineteeulh cen- 
tury is not fluent at the feet of his mistress, 
pressing her dainty fingers to the passionate 
eloquence of his lips ; but seat him at his 
desk, with the perfumed missive of bis fair 
one before him, and the clumsy-fingered 
carpet knight of the eighteenth century 
would be, compared with bim, like a school- 
boy wrestling with his first " pot-books and 

Plainly, the pen is the genius of the uiiie- 

Tbe imprints of photognipbcrs sometimes 
attain the picturesque in a marked degree, 
aud the small cut is a copy of one of these. 
It illustrates the idea of principality aud 
giadatiou, as applied to size and shade of 
letters ; and exemplifies a degree between the 
medium and the ultra -picturesque. 

Many of our living penmen exhibit iu 
their penmanship more or less of tlie pic- 
turesque, and it would have been easy to 
find among their work an abuntbince of ex- 
cellent illustrative slips. But as tlie difiicult 
question \vnuld be which to choose, without 
seeming uifappreciativeof those not ehosen, 
we turn for our example from the living to 
one who has long since laid down his good 
l)en forever. The slip selected from his 
work is u less intense expression of the pic- 
turesque, except in the contrast of light 
with shaded lines, than the photographer's 
imprint; but tliat contnist. together with 
other beauties, renders it, to our thinking, 
much the more pleasing cxampleof thetwu. 
In saying this wc speak rather of the 
originals iu our bauds than of the tran- 
scripts printed herewith. For, with all 
their skill aud earnest efTort. we know how 
difiieult it is for engraver and printer with 
their moterial to rival the pen aud produce 
just the result desired. Still we are not 
without hope tliat the illustrations given 
may prove of use and interest in connection 
with the subject. 

Out larger illustration (of course not a 
model for business purposes) is an example 
of a condensed hand. The picturesque 
quality may, however, show itself in con- 
II' (til. n with almost any style of writing'. 
lUdugh^some lend" tl^ .selves to ^ 

and tmr i^ir Walter Seotts their Lockbarts V 
The best we can show is our repertorial in- 
terview, iu which the broken and discon- 
nected replies of the oracle arc carefully 
polished, arranged, aud set in flowing sen- 
tences by the scribe before they reach the 
eye of the public. It is a question, also, 
whether the reporter himself could ttilk 
from his notes as readily as he can write 
from them, so utterly has the conversational 
talent departed from the present generation . 
There is a reason for al! things, and, of 
course, there must be some reason for the 
decadence of talk. It is not because the 
race has undergone intellectual dcterioni- 
lion. On the contrary, the achievements of 
our times show conclusively enough that 
there has been, a vast growth in menial 
power within the hist two centuries. The 
world never had such profound philoso- 
phers, such deep-seeing scientists, such able 
statesmen, such broad and thoughtful schol- 
ars, or such rich and fruitful thinkers, as 
to-day. Such mtn as these could out talk, 
as they have out-tbought, all postages, were 
it not for the one thing which has handi- 
capped all conversational achievement. And 
that one thing— a little thing, too !— is the 
pen. It is writing which has relegated talk- 
ing to the mystic category of the lost arts. 
The writing habit of the present age is. 
perhaps, that which characterizes it more 
than anything else. The old definition of 
man, that he is a " thinking animal," might 
just as well be changed to a " writing ani- 
mal," for it must be confessed that the ma- 
jority of men nowadays write a great deal 
more Ibiiii lliey think, A man with a pen 
in his hand is a much more common specla- 

tceulb century — mightier than all the genii 
which have ever served the human race. 
Writing has done away, praclicdly, with 
conversation as a fine art. Wc still talk, to 
be sure, but our sober communications are 
of every-day affairs, and our wit has degen- 
erated into repartee. Time works many 
strange things, and the world rolls on the 
wheels of change 1 

A Card-Writer's Scheme. 

" How's business, Dick ?" asked a reporter 
of a card-writer in the rotunda of a Chicago 

"You mean how is card-writing ? Well, 
that's N. G. just now. I haven't writleu a 
dozen cards in a week. But I've struck 
something in which there is a good deal 
more cash," and Hichard, who slings a 
mighty fine quill, pointed to a sheet of fools- 
cjip on which were the words : " The Hon. 
Daniel Manning, secretary of the treasury, 

" What is it ?" queried the reporter. 

•' What ! that's an application to Pan 

"An application, eh ?" 

" Ya-up. I don't write any more visiting 
cards now. as I have as much as I can do to 
fill orders for this kind o' work. Oh, it's 
improving, I tell you. Whv. in the lust 
three weeks I have done nothing else than 
make out applications for offices. Seems 
everybody in town wants something. Say, 
I've written eight applications for the col- 
lectorsliip. Yes. you wouldn't believe me 
if I told you the different men who want 



that position. T 
that office." 


" Yes. sir. Say, quit that now," said 
Dick, as he noticed the reporter wjis trying 
to discover the name of the applicant. ' ' Oh, 
no ; I can't tell you who they are. All I 
have to do is to copy the form, and then the 
signatures are pasted on. When I got this 
order I was asking Dan Manning for the 
marshalship. I don't believe you could hit 
the name of the man who wanted it in a 
dozen guesses. Every Democrat in the city 
seems to be looking for something. An 
application I wrote yesterday limi lln' \\.iiiK, 
'If notatyour disposal, would 'j^ willing: 
to take a clerkship, as I mean in nmM- ii> 
Washington with my family, anyway. W-s. 
sir, and that gentleman hiws a pretty soft 
snap in the county building. I wish tltis 
thing would keep up, as it's bringing in the 
ducats. Say, what office do you want ? I'll 
write up an application for you half price, 
and I'll furnish a score of ' sigs.' You have 
about as much chance of getting an ofiiee as 
some of the fellows I've been writing for." 

" What are your prices ? " 

"Well, if you say anything about the 
applicant's character and the work he per- 
formed during the late campaign, * which, 
sir, ended so successfully and gloriously for 

tllr li I'llr 'r yit'i tii:i11 who nOW OCCUpicS 

III. ' ■. .: ■ I :n, ;ind through him for 

M,-' ii. >n :m,u',' I charge fl If it 

i-iiKnU iiiiiM iidation from business 

men I gel $;3, A recommendation for the 
marshalship of this SUite, which I wrote, 
covered three pages of foolscap, without 
counting the signatures. I got $8 for it. 
Well, so long. Come around when you 
want anything," and work was begun on 
another man's "want." 


Educational Advance. 
owthat conservative old iustiiutiou, 

the University of Pennsylvania, of Phila* 
delphia, has departed from the beaten track 
which colleges have followed for centuries, 
and adopted the new-fangled notion that 
the student shall have some say as to what 
he shall study. In a certain catalogue just 
received they tell us of several new courses 
which omit some of tlie old imperative 
studies; and even in the old "regular" 
course, in the junior and senior years, most 
all of the studies are elective with the 
student. This, we think, is a most com- 
mendable advance. Instead of the old plan 
of having a fixed, unchangeable course, 
which the student must be pressed aud 
twisted and squeezed to fit, we have the 
course changed to fit the student. If a man 
desires to be a merchant, an educated one, 
be don't want to go to a college which will 
compel him to spend half his time in poring 
over Latin and Greek idioms, and the other 
half, perhaps, in trying to discover the 
quotient of a differential of a function, 
or some other abstruse problem. Ho 
would prefer, and it would he to bis ad- 
vantage, to take a course including German 
or French, philosophy, political economy, 
especiiilly divniinu his attention to all 
kiiowl.-dge hr:(iiii- uii trade and commerce. 
(It ({.uiKf. \u- ^limild. in the eariy part of 
his college life. liL- given a fair knowledge 
of the progress iu the different sciences, but 
after that he should be permitted to follow 
his own bent. A college should have fully 
compeleiit tcacln is in all branches ; its aim 
should he iiui to turn out year after year 
men all puiicnud after the same model, 
regaidhsa of what ilieir natural abilities or 
taster may be, not to simply be able, like a 
machine, to annually turn out a set of 
wooden men. !is it were, who are able to 
translate so imti ii till rl, u mmli Latin, so 
mucbllebnu ■ il.. I in making 

abstmseasii i ■ ! ■ ■■'" ■ i'^. This is 

all very goi.d in ii- i-ln-i-. I'Ut a college 
should rather aim to lit a mau perfectly for 
what he proposes to do in life. Some of 
these thiugs, that is, the first principles of 
them, he should know, wbalever place in 
life he proposes to fill, but there is much 
of the present course of colleges which i.-i of 
no o:irililv nsif lo liiivimt-. miUss he proposes 

what lie wants to know, and aim to do it 
faithfully aud well,— Atoiwr;/ leader. 

The English Language. 

Iliil 1iiin>lv lionr n bear. 

[m iiliilii thnt nu om* uike» a 

I'll piiru H ivifr i>f ponnt : 

acted upon as here outlined, and properly 
placed before the examiners of the country, 
it is helievcd that it will materially aid in 
raising the standard of teaching, and conse- 
quently in improving the results of that 

It is a fact, possibly not generally known, 
that at many examinations which are sup- 
posed lo ascertain the fitness of ap^ijicants for 
the important oflice of teacher, penmanship 
is almost wholly ignored. No matter how 
scrawly and unsystematic one's penmanship 
may be, if he can but struggle through with 
the riuestions submitted in other branches, 
his success is assured. This is obviously an 
tmwise course to pursue ; it is indeed a posi- 
tive sin against the pupils of to-day, asit will 
certainly, if not pvirposely, deprive them 
of much needed training in the most useful 
of graphic arts. 

As the standard of qvialification required 
of teachers is largely determined by the ex- 
amining boards, an earnest appeal from a 
body of professional teachers, addressed di- 
rectly to them, urging that penmanship be 

in the fuudauieuUil bniueliw of a 
education: and 

W/ietvm, Examiners can, if they choose so 
to do, very greatly elevate among teachers 
the standard of attainment in penmanship, 
and the ability to impart a systematic know- 
ledge of it ; therefore, be it 

Remlted, That the National Business Edu 
cators' Association, now in convention as- 
sembled, as a body of progressive educators, 
keenly recognizing theimportanceof reform 
in teaching penmanship in our common 
schools, urgently request examiners every- 
where to use their utmost endeavors by all 
fair and judicious means to lead the teach- 
ers under their jurisdiction to become not 
only better penmen, but also better teachers 
of penmanship. 

Resolved, That ip conducting their exam- 
inations, examiners be rctiucslod to make 
penmanship the full equal of the other com- 
mon branches, a failure in writing being 
made just as fatal to success aa a failure in 
arithmetic, geography, or grammar. 

Remlved, That a copy of these resolutions 

Penma.iship in our Common 

Ci.KVKLAND, O., June 5, 1«85. 

Earnest, thoughtful discussion is the pre- 
lude to progress. It is thp mighty Archiint'- 
dean lever by which the galling sburklis of 
custom arc loosened, and the people are led 
up to a higher level of thought, and a more 
ixalled field of labor. 

However, in the heat of discussion let ub 
not deceive ourselves. Mere eccentricity of 
opinion, warmth of feeling without depth 
of thought, or unmeasured denunciation of 
existing methods and customs, without offer- 
ing at least nu equivalent substitute for 
them, will not greatly hasten tiie onward 
flow of the great wave of progress. The 
period of sufficient heat is the time not only 
for action, but for thought as well. Ours 
should be not merely an analytical philos- 
ophy, it should be both analytical and con 
structive, recognizing that fundamental law 
of evolution, "the sui-vival of the fittest." 

After much thorough disciLssion it seems 
to be pretty genemlly admitted (1) that writ- 
ing-Is one of the most important and most 
neglected of the common branches of study; 
and (2) that the teaching of it in our public 
schools fails to produce the results which 
might reasonably be expected from the ex- 
pense incurred and the labor bestowed. 

The existence of these facts is greatly to 
be di'plorcd. and a reform is earnestly de- 
sired by the friends of educational progress. 
Still, as already intimated, revolution is not 
reform, and denunciation is not reconstruc- 
tion. Wc need more of intelligent, sugges- 
tive criticism, and less of harmful, thought- 
less croaking. 

Teachers are so often brought under the 
liiTcc hish of unjust criticism that wc hesi- 
tate to add lo their burdens, even though the 
act he a plain duty. But all progressive 
teachers will, we trust, second the sugges- 
tions that follow. 

The general, wide-si)read interest in pen- 
manship, and the thoughtful discussion of 
iiKthods of teaching it, mark this as an era 
of chirographic reform. There are more 
good writers now in this country than ever 
bufore, There are also more good teachers 
of writing ilian ever before, and the leaven 
(if progress in this department is permeating 
ibf educatioiud system of our land. I am 
no pessimist; on the whole we are certainly 
gjiining. but wc are not ginning fasi 

One very practical way of giving an im- 
petus to this reform is this: liaite the 
>t.imltird of qmtUjieafion of the (earher. This 
is by uo means n new suggestion, but if 

( p/iot/i-eng raved from an </r 
and is given a« a specimen 

Affinal, executed at the office of the Journal, 
of Artistic Pennuinshtp. 

given its proper and natural prominence in 
the common school curriculum, would no 
doubt be productive of gratifying results. 

Woidd it not he well for the Business 
Educators' Association, which meets at 
Jacksonville, in July, to issue an address 
something like the following : 

Whereas, Penmanship is an art of the 
highest practical utility, being daily em- 
ployed by people in every walk of life ; and 

W7ie>v(u, The teaching of penmanship is 
shamefully neglected, or wholly ignored, in 
hundreds of our common schools, regular 
.systematic instruction in the niral districts 
being the exception instead of the rule as it 
sboidd be ; and 

Whereas, The people demand practical 
work in the school-room, teachmg that will 
at least give pupils a thorough ground work 

be published in the official orgim of this as- 
sociation.and forwarded so far as practicable 
to every Examining Board in the United 

If examiners generally heeded these reso- 
lutions, as many of them no doubt would* 
the natural tendency of the movement would 
be to increasethe patronage of Business Col- 
leges, as thousands of teaohers who are 
otherwise well-qualified would need to seek 
professional instruction in writing. They, 
in tJieir turn, would become zealous advo- 
cates of better writing and better teaching, 
and a tendency to reach and adhere to a 
higher standard in this branch would per- 
vade the whole of the lower division of our 
common school work. 

It is manifestly impossible to have every 
public school teacher a professional penman. 
No one expects it any more than we expect 
every teacher to bo a thorough Greek or 
Hebrew scholar. It is just as reasonable, how- 
ever — yes, it is far more reasonable— for us 

In demand that every one who is at the head 
of a common school— the people's university 
— be able to write with some degree of case 
and system, and intelligently to cxpUiin posi- 
tion, niovument, form, etc., as for examiners 
to recpirc him to "locate Rnngpur," or lo 
"give seventeen constructions of the Infini- 

Let professional teachers unite in making 
a public demand for a reform in this matter. 
Then if it is properly presented, progressive 
teachers of other branches and the jwople 
will heartily co-operate with us. 


Mr. Beecher's Last Work. 

At the close of his niorniiig sermon in 
Plymouth Church, after speidtiug of the 
changes in the signs of theology of the time, 
Mr. Beecher said : " I shall not be with you 
many more of the fast going ycai-s. Steadily 
for more than fifty years I have been under 
the influence of the great doctrine of evolu- 
tion. In my early preaching I discerned 
that the spirit of true religion was repre- 
sented by the leaven of the mustard seed. 
Then I found that science had a larger view, 
and that this was only one application of a 
great doctrine. Now there is not an edu- 
cated man under fifty years who is not sub- 
stantially an evolutionist. The application 
of the truths of evolution to all forma of 
doctrine— this will he the closing work of 
my life. I propose to discuss the questions 
of the Divine nature, human sin, the atone- 
ment, from the standpoint of evolution and 
in the light that falls from that philosophy. 
I wish I could write it out ; but I am beyond 
that. And I wish I could have absolutely 
accurate reporters. But to take a complete 
report of a sermon an hour long, and then 
reduce it to a quarter of a column for a 
morning newspaper is too much to ask. It 
would be a miracle. But I hope here and 
there tlnit there will be accurate reports, and 
I will revise thorn and put them in a book. I 
will do that, and then die. And your chil- 
dren will read the book and say, ' What 
was all this fuss made about Mr. Beeeher 
foi ? We believe just what he did. '"—A^. 
r. Ti'ibum. 

Bad Signatures. 

There are some i)ersons who really make 
a poiut of concocting a signature which 
cannot be read. Occasionally we receive 
letters every word of which is legible except 
the name of the sender, and it is nece-ssary 
to cut off the signature, and paste it on the 
reply envelope, in the hope that the post- 
master may know to whom the scrawl be- 

The eminent Dr. Potts, when a clerk in 
Philadelphia, took a bill to a Quaker, and 
had signed the receipt with one of those 
hieroglyphics sometimes seen on bank notes, 
Tlie Quaker, taking up the paper, said 
blandly : 

" Friend, what is that at the bottom ?" 

■' This, sir, is my name." 

" What is tby name ?'* 

"Williams. Potts." 

"Well, William, will thee please to write 
it down here plainly, so that a witness in 
court would know it ?" 

William learned a lesson that day, and 
ever afterward he wrote his name so it could 
be read. 

How to Remit Money. 
The best and safest way is by Post-oftice 
or Express Money Order, or a bank draft, on 
New York ; next, by registered letter. For 
fractional parts of a dollar, send postage- 
stamps. Do not send personal checks, es- 
pecially for small sums. Canadian postage- 
stamps are received. 

TuE Penman's Aiit Jouhn.xl, published 
by D. T. Ames, New York, is now the 
leading journal of penmanship in America. 
Its columns are full of the best thoughts of 
the land upon pen art, modes of teaching, 
etc.. and handsomely illustrated by exquisite 
engravings. Every teacher of common 
schools ought to take it. And then iL* cost is 
such a trifle. Every number is worth the cost 
of a year's subscription. — Ohio Business Col- 
lege Quarterly, 


ie Penmanship an Incentive t< 
Highfr Development of Intel- 
lectual Taste. 

All will admit tliat fine penmanship excites 
within them a wnse of admiration for the 
beautiful, and that familiarity and associa- 
tion wilh auythiag which in beautiful tends 
to cultivate the wslhetic sensibility. There- 
fore, the study of any art which is beautiful 
or sublime, will qualify us to more readily 
recognize and appreciate this quality in other 
things. By the study of writing as au art 
our emotions for the beautiful become more 
exquisite, and we can study and meditate 
upon a grand production of any kind, and 
more readily sympathize with its author, 
and poRscsR in a meaaure the elements which 
inspired him to the work. 

If we would cultivate a discriminating 
love for the beautiful, we should contine our 
study to the most faultless models. The true 
pen artist is coatfnually elevating his ideal of 
perfection, and every step forward gives 
him more critical diHCerniiig powers. The 
beautiful and sublime arc seen more readily 
in objects, and his admiration for the beauti- 
ful becomes more sensitive, aud an infinite 
joy is realized by thus cultivating this spirit- 
ual endowment. 

The penman who is eminently successful, 
unites in one conception all the elements of 
beauty and grace in his power, and excludes 
from it all that could diminish the effect. 
By thus uniting his forces in one direction 
his sense of beauty becomes more acute, and 
his ideal of perfection is raised to a higher 

If we study and sympathize with harmony 
our natures become assimilated to all things 
possessing this quality. When a lover of 
grandeur reads the works of Milton, he is 
for the time filled with the sentiments which 
inspired this great geuius, and feels a new 
sense and admiration for tiling sublime. 
It ia only by communion with those whose 
works are beautiful and sublime that we 
learn to imitate their intellectual achieve- 
ments and become admirers of all grand and 
beautiful productions. By this we do not 
mean that it is necessary for any one to be. 
come an exact imitator of great men, but to 
bring to the examination of every work the 
exercise of a colm. discriminating judgment 
and thus develop their individuality. In 
the study of work.? of any kind our sole ob- 
ject should not be to criticise, nor ou the 
other hond should we be wholly submissive, 
but should awaken our own sensibilities, to 
correct our errors, and to develop our own 
faculties by emulating the good and reject, 
ing the erroneous. 

The penman who makes a careful study 
of his work and is never satisfied with his 
own productions is constantly broadeniughis 
sense of the beautiful, and becoming more 
expert in detecting error and discord in that 
which he once thought perfection ; and as he 
thus advances be is led to see the lesthetics 
and harmony of not only form, but of word 
pictures as well. 

If we would cultivate the power of imagin. 
ation, we must first supply the mind wilh a 
variety of imagery as materials on which it 
may be exerted. In fine writing we find a 
combination of form and beauty which will 
go far toward supplying the treasury of im- 
agination ; and our conceptions will be clearer 
and more harmonious by being familiar wilh 
these elements of beauty. We may by tins 
means be led to see more concord in nature, 
and delight ourselves in the beautiful and 
grand wherever they uiay exist in every 
aspect of creation around us. 

The penman who is not shut out from 
everything else, and who is not so narrowed 
down to his work, will not fail to feel that 
his knowledge and skill in this beautiful art 
are impelling him to move onward aurl up- 
ward into a knowledge and taste for other 
things which possess the beautiful element : 
a degree of skill and knowledge in a single 
art or science is not sufflctcnt for any one. 
In cases of tliis kind wo always find a nar- 
rowness and an inability to appreciate a vi^ 
tue iu anything else, and furthermore, 
frequently their conceptions are limited 
even in their own channel, and the clinrnx 
of their specialty is never reached, simply 
because their ideas were not stimulated and 
strengthened by combining a knowledge of 

olhiT tbin^^s. The penman who L;i< ihc 
spiritual element should and will see blend- 
ing in beautiful harmony other things in 
the objective world of nature and art which 
are analogous to his own productions. 
Some writer has truthfully and beautifully 

' ' When we have learned to associate the 
seen with the unseen, we have acquired a lan- 
guage which enables us to read with new 
eyes the inexhaustible volume of the works 
of nature." In the description of Washing- 
ton Irving, every animal, every tlowcr, 
every bird, the waterfall, the field and for- 
est, all seem endowed with life, and almost 
rea.son ; they seem to become united with us, 
and are even suggesting to us some idea of 
humor, or of affecting sentiment. The 
most common occurrences awakeued analo- 
gies of life and manners. 

Beauty and grandeur awaken in every one 
a sense of admiration ; and certainly if a 
knowledge be acquired of the elements 
which produce this effect, there will be 
formed in the mind a more acute asthetic 
sensibility ; and persons thus cultivated 
will be able to discriminate and discover 
the necessary combination to make an ob- 
ject beautiful, and will not fail to see and 
reject discordant and repulsive qualities. 

As the ear becomes susceptible to discord 
aud harmony, and acute in detecting these 
qualities in sound, so the eye becomes 
trained to grace and beauty iu penmanship 
to such degree that the slightest defect will 
be discovered at a glance. 

By the careful practice and study of pen- 
manship as an art. we not only become ex- 
pert in detecting the beauty and discord, but 
learn to analyze the combination of elements 
which give the effect. In order to cultivate 
an intellectual taste there must be a knowl- 
edge of the elements necessary to produce a 
certain effect. Any one may see beauty in 
an art without knowing the causes, but in 
order that the ideol of beauty be raised, and 
the lEsthelic sensibilities quickened and 
made sensitive, there must be made a care- 
ful study of the ciualities which give this 
pleasing effect. Then the power of discrim- 
ination and the habit of investigation will be 
formed, and objects of beauty and sublimity 
coming under our view will be more care- 
fully studied and appreciated. 

Concentration in the study of any art or 
science is the only way to make a complete 
success. This the penman learns ere he 
reaches a high degree of perfection. Many 
things would be found pleasant had we the 
power of concentration. Careful study gives 
pleasure when we begin to see the beautiful 
in the object pursued. By carefully pur- 
suing an author we catch his inspiration, 
and possess to a degree the element which 
infused his mind. So with an art ; he who 
fixes his eye and thnuirbf upon the produc- 
tion of a l!,.|.Ii.irl .ill-..,],, sume of the spirit- 
ual elt'Illrlll ..t , ;, ,;■,■, , 

Astlirir.i I !■.!■. .111(1 reasoning pow- 
ers arc liiM.ii, ri, , I r.ui iiriiii- niore powerful 
to grasp scicutilic qiiualious, by the mastery 
of mathematics, so is the sensuous knowl- 
edge rendered capable of reaching its su- 
preme aim by the mastery of an art having 
so beautiful a couibination of conceptions as 
penmanship. In this art wc certainly have 
some of the most important elements neces- 
sary to give beauty to any object. Light 
and shade, proportionate heights, regularity 
of curvature, parallelism, and grace of form 
and slant, all taken together, make a combi- 
nation of tasteful harmony. Then surely a 
knowledge of and skill in an art so beauti- 
ful has an inspiring effect, and is au incen- 
tive in the minds of the ambitious penman 
to a higiier development of his intellectual 

Back Numbers. 


back numbers. The following we can send, 
and no others : All numbers for 1B79, ex- 
cept January. May and Novanber ; all 
numbers for 1880, except March, July, Sf^. 
ttjnber and November; all numbers for 
1881, except December; all for 1883, except 
June; all for 1883, but January; all for 
1884. It will be noted that while Mr. 
Spencer's writing lessons began with May, 
the second lesson was in the July number 
Only a few copies of several of the numbers 
mentioned above remain, so that persons 
desinng all or ony part of them should 
order quickly. All the 51 numbers, back of 
1883, will be mailed for $4, or any of the 
numbers at 10 cents each. 

Noticing the articles in March and April 
numl)er8 of the Jouknai. respecting theutil- 
ity, etc.. of copy-books and compcndiums. I 
beg a small space in the Journal to express 
my opinion on the matter. 

From my cJirliest school days up to the 
present I have cherished no deep apprecia- 
tion for copy-books. But copy-books, 
"compcndiums," "substitutes," etc.. in 
themselves, play no conspicuous part. The 
case with our public schools is something 
parallel to a fanuerwho having sons he wishes 
to apprentice in masonry, does so to a man 
who knows nothing of architecture. It would 
make but a very little difference whether the 
model building be u polished brick mansion 
or a crude rock construction, for the instruc- 
tor (y) \s as wholly ignorant of either as are 
the apprentices ; and but very little, if any, 
better results would be obtained from the 
use of the one than the other as a model. 
The true source of imparting power must 
be in the instructor, not the building, iu the 
teacher, not the copy-books or " substi- 

Give us more "philosophical," and not 
quite so much " mathematical." until the 
school officers more persistently insist on 
school teachers being fairly qualified in the 
beautiful art of penmanship, else our coun- 
try must continually be stocked up with 
pen-splatters and ink-dabblers. Again. I re- 
peat that the copy-books and compcndiums 
are a matter of very little question. For 
where the teacher knows nothing about the 
art, and is giving it no study or attention, it 
makes no great difference which is used. 
And if we would advise either it certainly 
would be the compendiums ; their general 
make up is so attractive as to give fresh 
coui'age to the learners. 

Another point wherein the compendiums 
excel the copy-books, the compendiums are 
complete iu themselves. Aud the danger of 
a child getting a No. 3 when he should have 
a No. 1. a No. 5 when he should have a No. 
3, etc., is removed. It is a sure fact where 
the teacher is wholly ignorant of writing 
and its instnictiou. he is also ignorant of 
what number or grade of copy-book is needed 
to suit his pupils' respective abilities. So 
the pupils buy one number when they should 
have another. Let the compendiums go 
from pole to pole, and everybody rejoice and 
shout, Eureka ! Eureka ! 

Give to the copy books their due, to the 
compendiums their due, but to me the 

I speak whereof I know. 

U. W. Al,l,EN, 

Iluntsville. Texas. 

The dilHculty mentioned by Mr. Allen 
respecting the bad selection of copy- 
books iu country schools has consider- 
able force, especially where teachers are not 
sufficiently informed, or fail to properly ad- 
vise. This, however, is no fault of the copy- 
books. The same ignorance may lead the 
pupil or teacher to select and use the most 
disorderly and useless of the compendiums. 
a mistake which in our judgment no error in 
choice of copy-books can equal. 

Writing in Our Country Schools. 

Undoubtedly the columns of your valu- 
able paper are filled to their utmost extent, 
but being a subscriber, and interested in 
good writing, I trust a few lines upon the 
subject may not be out of place, or wanting 
in value to some of the many teachers of 
this country. 

In my experience I have noticed the 
metboc^s of many teachers in the coimtry, 
aud it is my belief that writing is the most 
indifferently taught of any branch in the 
country schools. 

At our teacher's examinations, some ex- 
perienced teachers are examined respecting 
the higher branches, but, to my astonish- 
ment, never respecting writing. 

I wish to urge upon my fellow teachers 
the importance of taking an increased inter- 
est iu writing and its instruction. To be 
sure, not all of us can be professional 
writers, but aM can understand the proper- 
ties of writing and the customary methods 

for teaching it. We should not omitoneof the 
most important branches used in business, 
and learn to teach branches that are 
of no practical use in business life. Cer- 
tainly it is nearly as important that one be 
able to write legibly as to read ; but there 
are scarcely fifty per cent, of the scholars in 
our country schools who are able to write a 
business letter in a creditable style. Why 
is this ? Chiefly for want of competent in- 
struction. In many instances, it is because 
teachers devote their time too much to 
students who study the higher branches, 
and neglect the lower and most important 
ones. There certainly is no other paper 
upon penmanship that is doing the thorough 
and helpful work ou behalf of good writing 
as is the Penman's Art Journal. A good 
and cheap aid for teachers is "Theory of 
Spencerian Penmanship." With this book 
and the Journal any live teacher can teach 
penmanship successfully. 

I hope these lines may induce not a few 
of my fellow teachers to avail themselves of 
these important aids to better instruction 
than has heretofore been given, and lead to 
more thorough work in this department at 
our Teacher's Institute. 

Note. — We certainly endorse what our 
correspondent says respecting the utility of 
the little book entitled "Theory of Spcn 
cerian Penmanship." and to those who may 
not find it in their book-stores, we will mail 
it from the office of the Journal on receipt 
of 30 cents. 

The English Tongue. 

The language in which Shakespeare and 
Milton wrote was the language of but five 
or six millions of people in their day, and as 
late as one hundred years ago English was 
spoken by not more than 15,000.000 or 
16,000,000 people. At the same period. 
French was the mother tongue of at least 
30,000,000, and German, in one or other of 
its forms, was the language of from 35,000,- 
000 to 40.000.000 people. This state of 
affairs is now completely reversed. Between 
forty and fifty years ago the English lan- 
guage equaled the German in the number of 
those who spoke it, and now the latter is 
left far behind in the race. German is spoken 
by 10,000,000 persons in the Austria-Hun- 
garian Empire, 46,000,000 in the German 
Empire, 40.000 in Belgium, 200,000 in 
Switzeriaud, aud is the native tongue of 
some 2,000.000 in the United States and 
Canada. This gives a total of about 60,- 
000,000 persons who may speak German. 

With the French the case is much the 
same. The gain during the past century 
has been smaller than that of Germany. 
French is now spoken by 38,000,000 of 
people of Franco, by 2,350,000 in Belgium, 
2,000,000 in Alsace-Lorraine, 600,000 in 
Switzerland. 1,500,000 in Canada and the 
United States. 600.000 in Hayti, and by 
1,500,000 iu Algiers, India, the West Indies, 
and Africa ; in all about 45.000.000. 

English is now spoken by all but some 
500.000 of the 36,000,000 of persons in the 
British Islands, by 53,000,000 out of the 
55,000.000 inhabitants of the United "States, 
by 4.000,000 persons in Canada, 3,000,000 in 
Australasia. 1.700.000 persons in the West 
Indies, aud, perhaps, by 1,000,000 in India 
aud the other British colonies. This brings 
up the total to 100,000,000, which cannot be 
very far from the truth. — 77m; Central Union. 

Ames's Guide. 

If you desire to have the very best aid to 
self-improvemcut iu practical and artistic 
penmanship, send seventy-five cents for 
Ames's "Guide to Self-Instruction in Prac- 
tical and Artistic Penmanship" (in paper 
covers), or $1 for same nicely bound in thick 
covers. It tells you all about writing, flour- 
ishing and lettering, and how to learn. If 
you are not pleased with it you may return it. 
and we will refund the cash by return mail. 

Washington, the first President of the 
United States, never saw a steamboat ; John 
Adams, the second President, never saw a 
railroad ; Andrew Jackson never received a 
telegraphic dispatch, and Lincoln never 
heard of a telephone.— £U'. 

"^^^^/^^ — — ''^^^^'C^ 

Dotting "I" and "J," and Cross- 
ing »T." 

Properly made, there are no other letters 
ID tlie alphabet like tLese three, even with- 
out their peculiar distinguishln]; marks. By 
estimate, and by actual trial of speed. I find 
we Itwe about one-fifth of the time spent in 
writing in dotting i and j. and crowing t. 
In these days of speed we can hardly afford 
this waMte of time, especially as writing is 
so largely used. Taking care in forming 
our letters may require n little extra time, 
but we shall be gainers, and so great a gain 
is no small thiug. Who has not felt the an- 
noyance of hunting up i'» and t'» in such 
words as "inimitable," "initiate," "indis- 
tinguishable?" And who has not felt what 
a largo proportion of time is devoted to dots 
in the words "is,'- "it," " in." and other 
small words ? 
' Now for a pmclical remedy : / being 
made hut two-thirds the height of I, the onl}/ 
letter it can be confounded with, can be 
easily distinguished, especially if care is 
taken not to loop it, or, to make it more cer- 
tain, give it always the regular hoavystroke 
at the lop ; j certainly needs no dot. as it 
cannot he mistidten. If there is any diffi- 
culty it is wiih t"/ but if m, n, «, and w are 
c(trrectly made, as well as i, there is no 
trouble. But to obviate all trouble, give i" 
the same heavy top that is given to t. and all 
difBculty will vanish, and much lime and 
annoyance will be saved. 

It is evident to us that our good brother 
Todd has never served in a printing otHcc, 
or he would not have suggested these 
changes. Editors and printers would be 
glad to send a cop3' of his letter to all con- 
tributors for the press as an excellent illus- 
tration of "how not to doit." The little 
marks be would omit are their most valua- 
l)le aids, and, therefore, their best friends. 
If all writers would write as carefully and 
plainly as he has (albeit his l'» and t's arc 
almost precisely of the same height) there 
would be but little trouble in reading their 

But, alas for " the rarity of" good pen- 
manship ! The regular and orderly forma- 
tion of the letters ! — well, that science be- 
longed largely to a past generation. Omit 
any more of their distinguishing marks, and 
the compositors would go wild Many words 
begin with a mark, continue with a splash, 
a splutter, and wind up with a sudden jerk. 
There is not one clearly defined letter in 
them. But there is a little dot at this point 
and at that, indicating the presence of an i, 
and this is the key, and the only key, to the 
mystery. You make out the word by the 
(. and you know the i' by the dot only. Omit 
the little dot, and you have no help in your 
worry. This is but a single instance, but it 
illustrates. In the name of all the toiling 
fraternity of the press we plead with Brother 
Todd not to push his " refonn." It would 
be crushing on us. Pity our sorrows, and 
do not increase them ! — Chrintian AdtocaU-. 

Modern Progress. 

In his most udniirablc address lately deliv- 
ered l)eforc the Alumni Society of the State 
University, at Columbus, O.. the Hon. Ste- 
phen B. Elkins siiid : 

"Twenty-five years ago, fired with the 
enthusiasm of youth, I uttered on this plat- 
form words of strong faith in human prog- 
ress. The experience of a quarter of a cen- 
tury only moves me to repeat this conviction, 
ilan's career Irom the beginning has been 
marked by improvement, he is now better, 
wiser, and stronger than over. The history 
of humanity is the record of a gradual de- 
velopment from lower to higher organiza- 
tion. Obedient to this law of evolution, 
society lias made like progress. This ad- 
vance has not been constant, but it has been 
certain ; made in circles and cycles through 
which ever ' upward steals the life of man.' 
\ " The world was never so rich in accumu- 
llatod wealth, comforts of civilization, cul- 
ture, intelligence, and charity. The average 
coudilion of the people is belter than in any 
former period. Civilization has reached a 
higher point, and light is breaking nil around 
the globe. The dark regions of Africa, di."- 
coven-d to-day, are invaded l»y trade and 

commerce to-morrow. India and Ilieislaiids 
of the sea are yielding to the intluences of a 
belter civilization than they have ever 
known. In everj- land the people know 
more, have more liberty, and enjoy more 

" The material progress made during the 
nineteenth century, especially in the last 
lifty years. suri)asses that of all other peri- 
ods of history. In Europe and the United 
States wealth has increased since 1R50 three 
times faster than population. jMachinery 
has multiplied until its productive power in 
the United States and England alone is equal 
to the power of a thousand million men. 
Huxley says the 7,500,000 workers in Eng- 
land can produce as much -in six months as 
would have required, one hundred years 
ago, the entire working force of the world 
one year to equal. In the United States 
wealth has increased from 1850 to 1884 
forty-three thousand two hundred and forty 
millions of dollans. According to Mulhall, 
since 18o0 Great Britain has almost trebled 
her wealth ; France has quadrupled hers ; 
the Unitcii snilc li;is nuilliplied in wealth 
six-fnld, i.nd 111 pn-nit mc ;ire growiiiy 

sunrise eat-L 'hiy. 'A'^"- aucumulaliuns of 
Europe and the United Slates make up daily 
$11,000,000, and the increase in population 
is U.OOO daily. It is eslimaicd that it re- 
quires less than one-half of the manual labor 

cle on ■ Kin lleyond the S<n.' declared ' that 
the census of 1880 would exhibit the Amer- 
ican Republic as certainly the wealthiest of 
all nations,' and he did not err. Bismarck, 
in a speech made in the Reisf'htag, May 14, 
1883, used this language : 

" 'The success of the United States in na- 
tional dcvclcpment is the most illustrious of 
modern times. The American nation has 
not only successfully borne and suppressed 
the most gigantic and expensive war of all 
history, but immediately afterward found 
employment for all its soldiers and marines, 
paid off most of the debts, given labor and 
homes to all the unemployed of Europe as 
fast as they could arrive within its territory, 
and still by a system of taxation so indirect 
as not to be perceived, much less felt.' " 

UN fast I 

with gond ti 


PniLADELPiUA. Pa., May 80, 1885. 
Editor Penman's Art JotiitNAL : 

My last communication was from Boston, 
where I was wielding the pen within the 
classic shades of Harvard. 

I am now engaged for a short time in the 
City of Brothcriy Love. The love of con- 
sistency, common honesty, and good 
writing, it is well known, abounds among 
the intelligent citizens here at the cradle of 
American independence. 

As an essential concomitant of language, 

Moderate, in comparison with fast, means 
limited, restrained, and in physical action 
cannot mean rapidity ; hence in relation to 
letters designates the very opposite of rapid 
writing. If the title of the book in question 
were made consistent with its compticnted 
teaching of five degrees of writing actively, 
it would be willed " The Method of Teach- 
ing Slow Writing from the Beginning." 

Its chalk or white line copies cannot 
show the tone and chanicterof writing with 
pen and black ink, and do not properly 
come under the head of peumanshii>— cer- 
tainly not practical penmanship. 


Interesting Sale of Autographs. 

The salesrooms of Bangs & Co. wore well 
filled recently at the auction sale of the Ely 
collection of autogrnpbH. The prices were 
good. The bidding in most instances was 
done by dealers, wiio buy on commission, 
A letter by John Adams headed the list. 
It was started at $3 and quickly ran up to 
|12 50 Nest was a letter by Benedict Ar- 
nold to the Duke of Portland, referring to 
Arnold's petition for waste lands in Canada 
as compensation for his losses and services. 
It brought $18. A one-page letter by 
Abraham Lincoln, written May 4, 1864, 
was struck off for $16, while one by George 
Washington was run up to $75. A letter 

that was required in 1865 to produce an 
equal amount of subsistence. The domain 
of nature has been invaded by science, and 
her secret forces made subservient to Ihe 
will of man, until they stand ready to serve 
him as 'courtiers surround a monarch.' 
During this period great progress has been 
made in political and intellectual develop- 
ment. The schools, colleges, asylums, hos- 
pitals, (Iiuirlii-^, ;uiil luiievolent institutions 
found i.\t I M\ h. (, :iii ilir mouumeuts of in- 
creasini: .li:ini\ ami philanthropy. The 
nineieeiiili rcniiiry will In- set down in Ihe 
world's history as the century of material 
progress. May we not believe that it will 
furnish the foundation for a moral progress 
not less wonderful in the twentieth century, 
in the shadow of whose portals we now 
stand, in which the moral forces will grow 
and be strengthened, and man will be made 
gentler, wiser, and purer, so that, in the 
stately procession of centuries the twentieth 
will take its place as the century of moral 
progress ? The signs point in this direction 
and encourage this belief. 

"In this great march of progress the 
United States lakes the lead. In this rich 
world this nation stands the richest. The 
valuation of property in 1884 was $51,670,- 
000.000 in round numbers, that of Great 
Britain, mother and rival, being* more than 
$6,000,000,000 less. Gladstone, in his arti- 

educalion, and business, American writing 
should be preserved from the pollution of 
charlatanism in the methods of teaching and 
acquiring it as well as in its practical uses. 

There are millions of copies of penman- 
ship publications, sold at about the cost of 
good cap paper, and used in the public and 
private schools, from which liow good 
writing exlant in this country for genera- 
tions past. None of these publications from 
reputable authors seek to inculcate slow 
writing. Copious exercises on the covcra 
of many of the books develop free move- 
ments as a feature of easy writing, and the 
truism taught by father Spencer— " write 
as fast as is consistent with good form " — 
has never been lost sight of in American 

An author out in Western Ohio has re- 
cently, however, launched a book, purport- 
ing to show blackboard copies, and he calls 
the scheme of teaching from the book, 
"rapid writing from the beginning." This 
scribe, after claiming originality only for 
" rapid writing from the beginning," gives 
the death blow to his pretensions by making 
it mandatory upon pupils to(l) write "very 
deliberate," (2) "deliberate," and (3) 
" moderate," before writing "fast," or 
"very fast." Webster defines deliberate, 
in its relation to time, as meaning slow ; 
hence very deliberate means very slow. 

by Thomas Jefferson to Lafayette sold for 
$7.50. Letters by James Buchanan and 
Aaron Burr sold for $1.75 and $2.75 re- 
spectively. Lctlcra by Benjamin Franklin 
and Henry Clay each realized $6. A letter 
by James Fcnimore Cooper sold for $11, 
fifty cents more than one by Washington 
Irving, while one by Lord Beaconsfield only 
reached $1 75. An interesting letter by 
Charles I. to his nephew. Prince Rupert, 
shortly after the King's defeat at Nascby, 
was sold for $35, and a receipt for ,tl.500, 
for pension, signed by Prince ilupert, was 
knocked down for $16. 

Our Teacher's Agency 

con-sists simply in this, that we keep a list of 
the names of applicants for situations and 
those wauling assistants, and when an ap- 
plication for a teacher, or by a teacher 
for a situation is made, accompanied by 
$2.00, we place the name in their respective 
lists and then we place the two parties in 
correspondence. This plan has resulted in 
the securing of a good situation to nearly 
every well qualified applicant. 

Remember, you can get the JointKAL one 
year, and a 75-cent book free, for $1 ; or a 
$1 book and the Jouknal for $1.2<'>. Do 
your friends a favor by telling them. 

The Peamao's CotiTention at Jackson- 
ville, III. 

J PLY 9. 1885— 

For ninny years, whenever penmen bnp- 
licnod to meet in little groups, the idea of a 
nutioniit penman's convention wns usually 
considered. In 1878 the idea took shnpe in 
a call for n pcomnn's convention, to be held 
in New York. At the appointed time, as so 
few who were specially interested in pen- 
manship were present. Die butiiness college 
men, who formed nearly the entire hody. 
or^^nized the meeting, and established the 
Business Ktlueator's and P.-nnian's Associa- 
tion. At ('levehmd iuid CMiieago the uttcnd- 
aiicc of those specially iutereste<lin penniau- 
fihip was so limited that their art received 
bnt liltlc recognition. After the failure of 
ibe association to meet at Cineinnnti, n spe- 
cial advance was made to penmen, and with 
the twsnraiicc of om-tbird the time of (he 
jLisDciatiiin for peninansliip. a large meeting 
wn!* secured. 'I'lirough the special efforts of 
Mr. Ames and one or two otlicrs, the pen- 
men have had fair meetings at Washington 
and Kochester, but it is also true that there 
are not five penmen in this country who 
iiavc made special efforts in the interest of 
tlie penman's section. The criticisms passed 
»ipon the meetings have been by persons 
who have never made an effort, by phms, 
votes, or in any way, to promote the inter- 
ests of the section. 

Tbat [Jcnmen may this year enjoy the lar- 
gest and Ijp^t mecliiig ever held by tbeni. tlie 
most perffcl aiiangcments liavcbecn nnule 
in their inlercsl. Besides the time during 
which the entire association participate.':, as 
nimiy-<*lffir long and frequent meeiings as 
penmen may desire will be held. In fact, 
tliey may devote their entire time for one 
week, if they choose. Already there is as- 
surance of the largest gathering of penmen 
ever yet held, and the Penmanship Com- 
mittee are determined to spare no pains to 
secure to each and every atleudant every 
benefit within their power. It is believed 
that no penman can afford to miss this meet- 
ing, where each may learn what to do and 
what not to do to rise and prosper in his 
])rofes9ion. The association prograninu-. 
containing full particulars of tlie alhar lions 
offered, will be sent to any address, i,y jqt- 
plying to G. W. Brown, Jackson villc, III,, 
or to myself, at Worcester, JIass. 

A. II. lIiNMAN, of Executive Com., 
Chairman Penman's Section, 

The Coming Convention— A Large 
Meeting Assured. 

As many c(aninercial teachers about this 
time are considering the iiuestion as to 
wlietiier or not it will pay to attend the 
Jacksonvilie meeting, I deem it proper, as a 
member of the Executive Committee, to call 
attention to a lew of the many benefits to be 
gained at these meetings. 

I have often noticed at these gatlieriugs 
that those who were the most delighted were 
the ones who came to them feeling skeptical 
as to whether or not they would be benefit- 
ted. That which seems to be appreciated 
even more than the excellent discussions are 
the constantly occurring opportunities af- 
forded for gaining others' experiences and 
methods. While competitors are often close- 
mouthed with each other, it is found that 
among those not in competition there is a 
very generous disposition toexcbauge ideas. 
In fact, in the large crowd of sincere, brolh- 
eriy teachers there is such a constjtnt flow of 
pei-sonal discussions in each other's interest 
that the common remark is, "I would not 
have missed this meeting for anything ' 
Says one : " With the ideas I've got, I shall 
change my whole course of instruction next 
year." Says another: "I have gjiined 
points in advertising worth many times 
what it costs me to come." And thus does 
one and another discover ways out of their 
old ruts, to adopt the methods of more pros- 
perous teachers. Were other evidence 
needed to prove the value of these meetings, 
there stands out in hold relief the fact that 
the most prominent, successful, and pros- 
perous members of the profession are regu- 
lar attendants at these yearly meetings, "if 
it did not pay them to keep posted Uiey 
would remain at home, to dwindle down 
into narrow ruts, imd wonder how others 

manage to get large schools. To minglf for 
a week among one hundred and fifty live 
teachers, each us willing to give points as to 
receive, is sure to yield bencfitjj, in future 
<lollars and cents, worth many times the cost 
of attendance. The harvest is worth the 
seed. A large meeting is assured at Jack- 
sonville, and the live members of the profes- 
sion will be there. 


Drawing^ Lesson No. VIII. 

Tlie following exercises should be drawn 
entirely free-hand, with crayon on black- 
board, or with pen or pencil on paper, 
first making a stjuare and placing the points 
as in the first diagram : 

Origin of Men of Genius. 

Columbus was the son of a weaver, and a 
weaver himself. Cervantes was a common 
soldier. Homer wixs the son of a small farmer. 
Demosthenes was the son of a cutter. Oliver 
Cromwell wius the son of a brewer. Howard 
was an apprentice to a grocer. Franklin 
was a journeyman printer, son of a tallow- 
chandler and soap boiler. Wolsey. Bunyan 
and DeFoe were tlie sons of butchers. 
Virgil was the son of a porter. Milton was 
the son of a money-scrivener. Pope was 
the son of a merchant. Burns was the son 
of a snudl fanner. Samuel Johnson's father 
was a bookseller. Pope and Soulhey were 
sons of linen drapers. George Stephenson's 
father was a tireman in a colliery. Klihu 
Burritt began life as a blacksmith. Richard 
Arkwright and Jeremy Taylor began life as 
barbers. Keats was a druggist, and Hum- 
phry Davy was an apothecary's apprentice. 
Bunyan was a tinker, and Ben Johnson was 
a bricklayer. William Chambers started 
life as an apprentice to a bookseller.— 7'/i€ 
StJiool Bill. 

Tell your friends, and tell them to tell 
everybody, that if they are in any way in- 
terested in good writing, the best investment 
they can make is to send |1 and get the 
Pensian's Art Journal one year and a 
splendid ■ ■ Guide to Self -Instruction in Prac- 
tical and Artistic Penmanship," worth $1, as 
a'premium, free. 

Women at the Banks, 
A woman in n hank is a more melancholy 
spectacle than a fish out of water, or a pussy 
in a strange garret. She — the woman, not 
the cat — comes to draw a check , or, perhaps, 
merely to endorse one. The eourtcoiis clerk 
knows to a certainty that his fair customer 
will turn the check round and sign her name 
in the wrong place. Mis cars are almost 
certain to he greeted with the sentence, 
"Oh. dear, I can't possibly write with a 
strange pen and ink, and on this paper ! " or 
" I'm so nervous today tbat my writing is 
perfectly horrid ! " In tlie humbler walks 
of life, the woman gives vent to the same 
cxpres-sions and often ends the scene by 
making her mark, after the vain effort to 
convey the impression tbat ber nervous 
system, not her education, is at fault. Some 
fair check-drawers stand in wholesome awe 
of the piles of money, the glass-fitted desks 
and the imperturbable clerks and tellers, ana 
tliey make errors in consequence. Then 
there is the "colored lady," who simpers 
and giggles and haw-haws, and whose hand, 
resembling a Cincinnati bam, grabs the pen 
to make a labored cross on the troublesome 
paper. Men may experience the depths of 
discomfort when obliged to confront a sew- 
ing society, but they do not feel a tithe of 
the embarassment which most women show 
while in tbetemplcsof Mammon. — h'uxf Knd 

Gems of Thought. 


Wealth is a weak anchor, and glory can- 
not support a man ; this is the law of God 
that virtue only is firm and cannot be 
shaken by a tempest. — I'ifthttgorus. 

Low as the grave is. we cannot climb high 
enough to see beyond it. 

Education begins the gentleman ; but 
reading, good company, and reflection must 
finish him. — /. I^oeke. 

Without stron.u :iil'( h-j i i ;uiity of 

heart and gnitiMnI' .■ i: mj whose 

codeisMercy, iiTiii ... r .N,iii„teis 

Benevolence to all i _ iii m i.m iiiic. true 

happiness can never Ijl- jifiiiiiitd — Jjtrkms. 

He who thinks he can do without others 

Mast love, aad joy. and 

have toclieri^b, 
la (.-lasp, (tr poi-islt. 

(Uliipisllke the dew, wliiuii, gnthcring 
inls uiioii tlic buds, the flowers, the grass, 

tliQ wind, tho ] 

' ' ' 1 1^ 'I'liMiujis iiml tlio distant road, and so 

■"'I' ""* .""I 'II I irud falls, that but ita presence 

—Elmer TreMU. 
It is the discreet man, not the witty, nor 
the learned, nor the brave, that guides con- 
versation and gives measures to society.— 

chink in the worldR above. 

When they listen 


of misriil.-.h'.'-„... | 
Iti.'^iini ; ,, ,!■. . 

'' the L 


I I I iii.ikos the monk ; 

manyaiL- ihr-, .1 hi., niniiks who are in- 
wardly aujy iliiuu bui. i.iuiik.s . and some wear 
Spanish caps, who have but little of the 
valor of the Spaniard in Xhcm.—HnbeUiis. 

How it comes to ns in silent hours that 
tratb is our only armor in all passages of 
life and death ! 

If there ever was a good man, be certain 
there was another, and will be more.— A'/h- 

One lovuig hour 
For many a year of sorrow can diBponsc. 
A dram of Nwept Is worth a pound of simr. 

Just for Fun. 

And liuwEj the temples with aatiiiiply srnnv! 

—Dr. John Armstrong. 
If we work upon marble it will perish ; 
if we work upon brass time will efface it ; 
if we rear temples they will crumble into 
dust ; but if we work upon immortal minds, 
if we imbue them with principles, with Ibe 
just fear of God and love of our fellow-men, 
we engrave on those tablets something 
which will brighten to all QlGTmiy.—lyankl 

The difference between a woman and an 
umbrella is that you can shut u]) an umbrella. 

A young lady who was squeezed between 
two freight airs says it felt just like trying 
on a i)air of new corsets. 
.In Siam husbands gamble away their 
wives. That is the only civilized country 
where men find it pays to lose at poker. 

A woman was offered |1.000 if she would 
remain ?ilenl for two hours. At the end of 
nit.-.Tt TiiniMi.-^ Aw asked, "Isn't the time 

moved to a. sail- distance, "1 believe in wo- 
man's funeral rites." 

The giraffe has never been known to utter 
a sound. In this respect it resembles a 
young lady in a street car when a gentlemen 
gives her his seat. — Norrhtomi Ihrnld. 

An inquirer asks, " What has given 
woman the reputation of being such great 
talkers ? We don't know unless it is her 
mouth. — Morning Journal. 

There is a Spanish proverb which says : 
" When you elmose a wife shut your eyes 
iiii.l .■uniniciMi uaiiself to God." In other 

" Why, Id lilu' to know," said a lady to a 
judge, ■■ cannot a woman become a siiece-ss- 
ful lawyer?" " Because she is too fond of 
giving hei- opinion without pay," answered 
the judge. 

A iiKui rr((.iitlv married in Middleport 
uiih Hir iviur-Mvc unmc of llellenbolt. 
IIiii l"v<: ii>N,|iii'rs all things. — Lrjckport 

Eve wasn't unhappy in the garden of Eden 
because she had nothing to wear, " because," 
she said, "what's the good of nice clothes, 
when there are no other womeu to envy 
you ?" That'.'! what gnllcd Eve, 

asked how old he was. ■■ Six mouths okler 
than mother," was the honest reply. 

When a widow sa}'.'* shr doesn't inleiul to 
maiTv again, it m.-iv t-r tint li.-r hu'^ljaiul 

wass.i go(Kl that ^h" ■■ -■- ■ ■■!.! .-,,■.■ fur 

anotim- man ; ami \\i< ■ i.,- (hut 

her e-\perieuee with in ; l.n ;,.i .: : rjiade 

her wish fur any ihuil ■■[ n. , .lih.I it uiuy be 
that she lies, — Boaion. Past. 

Two young city ladies in the country were 
standing by the side of a wide ditch, which 
they didn't know how to cross. They ap- 
pealed to a boy, who was coming along the 
road, for help, whereupon he pointeil behind 
them with astartled air and yelled, ■ ' Snakes! " 
The young ladies crossed the ditch at a 
single bound. 

Can You Make a Better Investment 
than to pay %\ for the JouilNALone year, and 
the "Guide to Self-Instruction in Plain and 
Artistic Penmanship" tree as a premium ? 

The Guide contains sixty-four large pages 
of instruction, and copies for plain writing, 
flourishing, and lettering, and is alone sold 
for 75 cents (in paper covers), and %\, haud- 
somely bound. 

■fff In 


'mI .mil .\i ti li. I 'en 111,111 -hip is a book of 64 
1,11 ; . ;! , 11 1, li ,| on the finest 

|||' I.. . . : , ■■■ , .li ■ I , ..I.. I i^ devoted ex- 
(Iu-ulI^ (■■ iii.>ii II. ii.ft, jiiiil copies for plain 
writing, otl-band flourishing, and lettering. 
We are sure tbat no other work, of nearly 
equal value, in alt the department of the 
penman's art as will this. Thirty-two pages 
arc devoted to instruction and copies for plain 
writing ; fourteen pages to the principles 
and examples for flourishing ; sixteen 
pages to alphabets, package-marking, and 
monograms. — Audubon Co. Sentinel. 

Ill III. ''.' .^ II iMTi Colony Ilislorieal So- 

I i ' ' •■ of the cord that was 

:i" I : ; . Liii.iiis kilo which Benjamiu 
lianUliu il. u wi i;oll, and through which he 
brouL'iil IhtekctiiciLy from the cloudn. It is 
ap|»arenlly linen twist, througli which passed 
a fine copper wire. Its authenticity is 
vouched for. It has been in possession of 
the doQor for 50 years. 

Al! 1 -lOl UNAL 

Educational Notes. 

UVtmiDunlcatiuns for this Dcpartmeiit mttybead- 
drira-oil to D- K. Kkllit. Uptown OtRve of the 
pEnuMi'a ABT .lounxAL. Ho*. 4 nml 6 West F<>ur- 
ttwntli strwl, New York. Brief educutiuno] Il«iae 


AIJMOuri employs 15,000 tcnclicrs. 

The New York Stale Tcneliers' ^Vssociation 
will nicel at Siirmopi July 8-10. 

Ulniiic has at last ndoplcfl a plan of icacli- 
*nti teinpcDiucc In her i>ublif scliools. 

The MisBc-s CurtiN. twn iiu'cva of President 
t'lcvfilancl. are Iwirbers io the public 8c1ioo1h 

. 111. 

C.'oruell Univci-sityclainistliebeat armnpcd 
:?oIlcctIon of sIiuIIh id tbe world. It lias 
:<)«1 *I0.000. 

jiliii bas four universities, wliicli, in 

uiu, rank with Hiirvnrd, Oxford. 


net proijcrlie-s of the leading New 

i.IIci:'-^ .in- iis fiilloivs:— Columbia, 

""I '■ 'I *'; ii.""..n(iO; Union, 

"I" ^ ■ ^1 ■■ ' "-'" '"I" , liochestcr. 

\ I ' II lived for yeai-s among 

ilii I' I > i\ ili;i( many of them are 
grii.ln III- -I I .i-\. I II colleges. 

The iivtTiijje atleudance al tbe colleges 
throughout tbe country is Jess than for a 
numhpr of ywirs 


Small boy to teacher— '■ When a hen re- 
•es for tbe night is it proper to call her a 
roosicr t'^ 

Why doth tbflUjlfie school boy swear softly 
nil the way honie*-wben be has been kept 
after '=fbonl y Ecruuso " too mucb learning 

^■un n 1.!^ . iiiuge. Well, liiany of 

^ '"i: - 1 1 1 '>i I ;, i, iiris may be found sitting 
•un si.ii.f. v\>iii uKc young men any time after 

8 o'clock 1'. M. 

^ Teacher— " So you can't do a simple aura 
in aritlimetie. Now, id nu- (■^]llilill lo \thi. 
tfunposc eiglii".| \nii iii>. i.. . 

'eightupplp^, ^ u^,. ! . , i , , 

■mclong, wlini wii , , I ^ , 

'■('h0i«-ll Ml -. I, {.In .1 .l,.h 

top. who is mi(licu-d lo I hill mala 

Professor— " Why does a duck put his 
bead under water V Pupil— " For divci-s 
reasons." Professor — " Wby does he go on 
land?" Pupil— "For sundry reasons." 
Professor— "PJext. You may tell us wby a 
duck puts his bead under water." Second 
p„pil_" To liquidate bis bill." Professor- 
" And why docs he go on land ?" Second 
Pupil— ■' To make a run on the bank.*'— A>. 

Somnolent !ir« lli.-i.if!.:1p in il« iTinvI.Mtb, 
and in dream v iJh n. -- ii-i v^ .-I !■! < \u-^<.n\-^ 
gum lies on iIm ..i.i../ -.iI \ ii .■. ■■ i ihr 
gltuting snnln ,, ■ i . Ii, 

thcshivcm! '■■■! ..■■■. I .'^ ."ii^ 

tlifln ■ ■ !■ 1 ■ I i'mI- 

scrtttered biiiri'i i i i i 
bustle — tbey n' 

mutely. yet pull 

heart that Ibi' suni -nl 
and is now engaged in tii 
freckles.— (7 AfeaffO Tribune 

sion is so strong that it would require cbcni- 
iciil proccsHcs of great nicety to separate one 
from the other. Oil is boiled in a cauldron 
until it loses a great deal of its greasy (piali- 
ty ; and tbe ink-maker provides two kinds 
of tlii^ " varnish " (as (he boiled oil is called), 
having different degrees of thicknew or con- 
sistency, since the state of the weather and 
tbe lund of type influence the tliickncss re- 
quired in printing. 

For making black printing ink the varnish 
is mixed with lampblack; for red ink with 
vermilion. The varnisb and the coloring 
material arc ground up "wcU together, and 
one other of some otlicr materials is gener- 
ally added, including turpentine, rosin, soap, 
and treacle. Tbeink used for printing from 
copper or steel plates, or from lithographs, 
is mucb the same in quality as that for 
press printing, but is less viscid. 

The ink made for writing is far nunc di- 



as pfuito-enff raved from pen-and-ink copy ereeuted at the office of ihe 
I hei^e (fimn as a specimen of pen^neork applied to practical purposes. 

nmdes being nvailal>le for producing the 
requisite tint. Many different kinds of ink, 
called, for distinction, "wriling fluids," arc 
so prepared as to yield a blue color when 
first used, witli a tendency to change lo a jet 
black afterwards. 

Other inks, such as arc employed for 
marking on linen, are made with a peculiar 
reference m >nntr- cltTiititnl nllinity or action 
between 1" ' I ' ' iii'N. Thus, whcu 

an ink i< ii i i ; ■ ■ of silver, gum 

ambir, li.i . : ; i , ,i I .iisiiUed water, if 
wiiiinj Ik I 111, i.ii Miili this on a piece of 
• h-\\> ii l.<i.>i.Ms iiMleliblc: but the cloth re- 
i|iiiu ^ lu 111 pn piiictl for this by being prc- 
viou-sly tlippt-d into a liquid fornieil of car- 
bonate of soda, gum aral>ic, and water, and 
Ihcn dried. Numerous varieties of these 
■' mark inks" are sold, having very unequal 


sof 11 

.\L':iin, iherc arc liquids which olitniii the 

inl.- ih:ii i~. iIm\- nrr iiiljs which may be 
11, ,.|. . iiii. I \i ,1.1. Ml i;,wMh]L- at Ihepleas- 

1 -r'-i' II'-. In nearly all 

111,-,. , 1.-,.- 111,. p;ip,.| i^ sleepcd in some 
clieriii<;il ILjui'l lo ;ii.l the object in view. 
Sometimes, when writing has been made 
with one li(|uid on paper which had pre- 
viously liccii sliT|.('rl ill aiiiillici, llif writing 

In OtlUT r;l ,. 

washed wiiii ;i 
writing, in order 


cnder liie Utter viisible. 

ee.s depend on Ihe ebcm- 
ical relations between the liquids employed, 
and will become more and more numerous 
as chemistry advances. Whetlier they are 
worth tbe t.oubleis another question. 

Ancient Times. 

licess in ancient limes. 

%-lV,.^ a hold. 

The Hawaiian Kingdom spends $78,000 
annually on its public schools. 

Educational Fancies. 

Professor: " Mention an oxide." Studeut: 
"Leather." Professor : "Oxide of what?'' 
Student: "O-videof Beef." Esit Prof essor. 



c^-^^W/i^r^^/Cx Cy^-^-ZA 


Gold was ii 
mostly taken from the rivers in Asia. The 
fables of Paclolus. of the Golden Fleece of 
the ArgonauUs. of the gold from Ophir, the 
history of King Midas, etc., alt point to an 
Eastern origin of this metal. According to 
Pliny, Cyrus returmd wiih ill.nOn Uoman 
pounds of gold (;ii",iii .-in.iiiiiMHiii). The 
treasures exactcil f I' : !■ \ u vander 

the Great amoui.tiii i ■! .hiiis, or 

$400,000,000. Gukl .i:=w v,.uR h..i.i Arabia, 
and upon the Nile from tbe interior of 
Africa. Pliny calls Asturias the country in 
which the most gold is found. A tablet 
bearing the following inscription was found 
in Idanha Vulha, Portugal : " Claudius 
Rufus returns his thanks to Jupiter for 
having permitted him to find one hundred 
and thirty pounds of gold." 

These sources of wealth have ceased to 
flow, and the endeavor of several English- 
men to reopeu them have been unsuccessful. 
Bohemia. Mahren, Silesia, and Tyrol, all 
have produced gold, and the receding of the 
glaciers has caused old mines to he uncov- 
ered, while upon the Italian side, at Monte 
Rosa, Val Scsina, and Val Ausaca, gold 
mines are still worked to-day, although 
with indifferent success. The only works of 
any note are those of Kremuitz, Hungary. 
It may, therefore, be safely asserted that 
Europe is completely exhausted in this re- 
spect. — I'ojndar Hciencc Mont/ili/. 


. pa ; 


1 the 

s studying his arith- 
cuing, when he 

A bright lillicboy 
invtic lesson at home 

e-vclaimed: "Twice live is eleven." "How 
is that, my son?" questioned his mother. 
" Why, ma," remarked the boy, "wecarry 

In a language lesson in one of the Chicago 
publur schools. theU-acher said. "Deceitful 
incnne false." A hoy in the chiss gave as an 
example of the use of that world- "My ma 
has deceitful teeth." 

"Wliiit WHS Ihc principal occupation of 

l-n',-I,M-;rl; ll,, C. ,1 [,, p,i\;it.' lifer" usked 
;i I'l..', - , ,.| ;| , I ,,u,.|-ifv of Texas of 

■' Now. (Jlmriey." said a teacher to a boy 

^ whom he had been punishing for the firs't 

V >"»e. '• I hone this has tnu^bt you a lesson." 

"ie»," said the bay, sobblngly, "it has 

taught me it is better to give than to receive.'- 

The Arts Contributory to Writing 

— The Materials and Imple-'''' 

ments Used. 

No. 8. 


The use of liquid is a ncccjwary nccompan- 
imcnt to a pen, and in -^^n Inr flu 1 iti, n"; less 
convenient than a ^>\l• i I'-ut 

the durability of ink mn,!- i ,iii,i_', 

which for many purports v\< Lh i in- mi- 
nor defect. Hence the prepuralion of an 
ink, or writing and printing fluid, has be- 
come an important matter in connection 
with the subject. The kinds of ink are 
mainly two. one for printing and the other 
for wriling. the distinction of the latter into 
black and red being a subordinate one. 

Printing ink contains oil, whereiis writing 
ink does not. The former is made princi- 
pally of oil and carbon, and has the property 
of adhering wiih much firmness to the sur- 
face of moistened paper- indeed, the adhe- 

verse in character than printing ink, since 
the requisite (pialities can be obtained from 
among :i mudi l;ir:rpr rlmice of ingredients. 

t:KT ivrip.- i,.r inls-innking are very mi- 
■dtis 1,1 uiiiit I'Hi.Iic'itions and adver- 
nieiils in ptriiin/ii >- pupers), audit would 
he impossible to state one that would apply 
to all. One mode of preparing it will suffice 
to illustrate its general character : 

Eiight ountyK of pounded Alleppo gall^, 
tog('ther with four ounces of logwood chips, 
are boiled for about an hour in twelve 
pounds of distilled water ; the decoction is 
strained through a hair sieve, and to it are 
added four ounces of sulphate of iron, three 
oimces of pounded gum arabic, one ounce of 
sulphate of copper, and one ounce of sugar 
candy ; the mixture is stirred until the? gum 
is dissolved, and after sti\uding lo yetlle, the 
clear portion is poured off into another ves- 
sel, where six drops of creosote are added to 
prevent moldiness. 

Red writing ink receives its color from 
cochineal, or logwood, or Brazil wood, com- 
bined with other chemical f>gcnts, many 

, Return if not Satisfactory, 
Remember, that if you ordrr either our 
"New Compendium of Pnictical and Artis- 
tic Penmauship," or the "Guide to Self- 
Instruction," and they are not satisfactory, 
you may return them, and we will refund 
the entire amount paid 


'Gabriel's toot will be a judgment note.— 
Pittsburg Chronicle Telcyraph. 

Men made to write — bookkeepei-s. — Mwr- 
nthftn Tiuh pendent. 

\\\i\ i- ,l,.<|>h Gillotl a very bad man? 

I;, •-, ll, \M~iiix to accustom the 

'-1,,! {Ml II, ,1 iliru tries to persuade them 

blowing about i' 

it is abandonment. 

n\ is human, but to refrain fro 

ideas, and not i 


PtibHnhed MontUy at SI i>er Ye 


Inel«> InKorllon. M wnl« per line nonpArl«L 


New Yo 

June, 1885. 

The Journal. 

Reflections liavc lieen cast upon the Joun- 
NAL by an eight-paged contemporary be- 
auise of the amount of its selecled matter. 
While it has been our determinatiou to pub- 
lish a penman's paper which should be the 
par excellence of its class, giving more and 
choicer matter relating specifically to the 
art of writing and teaching than any of its 
contemporaries, we have sought to go fur- 
ther, and furnish a periodical that should be 
of general interest and value to all classes of 
the thinking and aspiring young men and 
women of the land. Sixteen i)ages of the 
best penmanship literature ever written, 
month after month, would soon tire auri 
nauseate the most intense chirographic en- 
thusiast that ever existed. From the multi- 
tude of our excliauges we have made careful 
selection of what ha.s appeared to us the 
choicest gems of thought pertaining to the 
various departments of research, industry, 
and amusement. Educational Notes and 
Fancies, by Mr. Kelly, especially have re- 
ceived high compliment from the best edu- 
cational journals and teachers of the times. 

We begim the publication of the Journai, 
iu the full conviction that a penman's paper 
conducted upon the narrow plane of the 
average writing master, and chiefly as o per- 
sonal organ, would be doomed to a brief and 
precarious existence. The example of a 
score or more of such penman's papers, that 
have flashed forth like a meteor and for 
about ns brief a period, during the time that 
the JoL-RNAi. has been published, has con- 
firmed the accuracy of our conviction. 
There is no interest in a writing master's 
orgjin beyond the limited circle of bis own 
patrons and friends, who, at best, furnish a 
poor constituency for defraying the monthly 
bills for illustrating, printing, and mailing a 
paper of respectable aiipeanince. 

The .louRKAi, numbers among its subscri-" 
bers person-H from every chiss and occu- 
pation, and from nejuly every civilized na- 

tion on the globe ; indeed, tbo.e who may 
be termed penmen constitute but a very 
srajill portion of its subscribers and patrons. 
It is universally recognized as the chief of 
jts class, and beyond a doubt bus a patron- 
age many fold that of the aggregate of all 
the penman's papers that are or have been 
published. And this is due to the fact that 
the .InruNAi,. while it has in the truest sense 
been a penman's paper, has gone outside of 
the narrow writing master's limits and taken 
a broad, liberal view, not alone of all that 
relates to the penman's art and ils instruc- 
tion, but furnished to its readers a miscel- 
lany more choice and valuable than that of 
the average literary periodicals of the times. 

The Convention. 

Although it is our present purpose to 
mail the July number of the Jouhnai, 
before the time set for the convening of 
the convention, it will scarcely reach ita 
readers before that time, hence we improve 
this last opportunity to say to eveiy reader, 
who is teaching or desires to leach any of the 
commercial branches, that he or she cannot 
afford to be absent from the Convention. 
Besides the interchange qt ideas, they will 
meet and become acquainted with their co- 
laborers. It has come to be a well-recognized 
necessity, by good and efllcient teachers in 
all departments of education, that they 
should have their annual gatherings, and 
the teacher who does not attend should cer- 
tainly have some very cogent reason, which 
should not be that be is too wise to learn, 
or so indifferent to his calling, as not to 
.seek to avail himself of the immeasurable 
advantages thus offered for comparing and 
measuring his purposes and attainments 
with his fellows. 

Every indication is favorable to the largest 
assembly of the most earnest and capable 
workers in this now very important depart- 
ment of commercial education. We invite 
attention to articles upon this subject, on 
another page, from Messrs. Brown and 
Ilinman, who speak authoritatively. Pen- 
men, teachers, and artists should be there, and 
as far as is practical exhibit the resultsof their 
skill. Remember, the convention assembles 
on July 9th and continues to the 17tb, at 
Jacksonville. Til. We shall expect to see 
you tliere. 

Does Not See It. 

II. W.D.. of Boston, Mass., says: "I was 
much interested in your examples of copy 
and bu.siness writing as given in the last 
number of the JoiniNAL. but I do not see 
why. if business writing is whaU you are 
after, you do not go for it direct, by using it 
for a copy instead of such writing as you 
admit to be impracticable for busines.-*, and 
such as no body can use in their ordinary 

This is an old question, one that has been 
often asked, and many times answered 
through the columns of the Journal, bntas 
our correspondent is one among many re- 
cent subscribers who may be benefitted by 
another answer, we give it. For busi- 
ness or habitual writing there can be no 
standard since no two business men write 
alike, nor does any one of them write the 
same under varying modes and purposes; 
hence what today would stand for a copy 
or model, might to morrow present a very 
different appearance. Business writing con- 
sists largely of the peculiar personality of 
each writer, which must be as varied as are 
Ibe mental and physical structures, together 
with the environments of the different wri- 
ters. One might just as well attempt to es- 
tablish a standard for the physiognomy and 
personal characteristics of all men, as for 
their habitual writing, and if there can be no 
staudnrd for such writing, it certainly can- 
no^ be so systematized as to be successfully 
taught. It is only by a constant Striving for 
a specific purpose that the mind and hand 
become skilled specialists. Standard copy 
writing furnishes specific and unvarying 
models, and hence furnishes a general basis 
for all writers, alike for teaching and prac- 
tice, by its study. The judgment, eye and 
hand can be disciplined and educated, and 
the only reason that such writing is not 
curried, in its perfection, into ordinary prac- 
tice, ui that the varying personalities of the 
wrilei^and the^ exigencies of business for- 
bid the^rsquLsite care and thoughtful pre- 

cision, and hence come.s the modifications 
which are unconscious, and soon come 
through practice to be confirmed habits by 
the different writers. Therefore the only way 
to good business writing is through good 
and systematic copy writing. 

L. D. Drewry. Atlanta, Ga., says : "As I 
have received only four copies of the Jotm- 
NAL during the past twelve months, you will 
please discontinue the same." It is not in- 
frequent that complaints similar to the above 
are received. Subscribers not receiving their 
paper wait month after month without giv- 
ing notice, and write impatient, not to say iq- 
sinuating or impertinent complaints, as if we 
were trying in some way to beat them out 
of their papers. A moment's reflection would 
teach any one how short-^r|d»ted and foolish 
such an effort on our parl^ould be. We 
could have no object but tcTretaiu the good- 
will and patronage of who rfave favored 
us with their subscriptions, and could we 
expect to do so were they in any way vic- 
timized t The JocTRKAL is printed every 
month in numbers ample for every sub- 
scriber, and how any one can that 
we would wish to withhold a copy from any 
subscriber is more than we can understand. 
Certainly nosubscribercan be more desirous 
of receiving his paper than are we that he 
should do so, and where, after proper time, 
the JonHNAL is not received, it is a plain 
neglect of duty on the part of the subscriber 
not to give notice, that we may search for 
and remove the cause, and when such notice 
is given, an extra copy is mailed at once, and 
every effort made to insure its subsequent 

The King Club 

For this month numbers sixUen, and was 
sent by Prof. C. R. Wells, superintendent of 
writing in the public schools of Syracuse. 
N. Y. The Queen Club numbcr^^wrfoc, and 
was sent by W. J. White, penman at Duff's 
Meraxntile College, Pittsburg, Pa, 

To Subscribers. 

Should a number of the JuruNAr, fail to 
reach you by the first of the month follow- 
ing its issue, on receipt of notice a duplicate 
copy will be mailed free. Requests for 
change of address should be accompanied 
by the old as well as the new address. Any 
subscriber who so requests may have his 
subscription remain permanently upon our 
books, and a bill instead of notice of ex- 
piration will be mailed at the end of each 
year. We do not mail receipts for sub- 
scription. The premium and paper are at 
once mailed, which is evidence of the re- 
ceipt of subscription. In case neither are 
promptly received notice should be at once 

The Cost of Cigar Smoking. 

The expense of smoking three five-cent 
cigars per day, from the age of twenty to 
seventy years, aggregates, with interest, to 
the snug little fortune of $16,316.37. Three 
cigars at ten cents each would in the same 
lime aggregate $31,162.14. How many 
gray-headed objects of charity and vic- 
tims of want might have passed their de- 
clining years iu independent comfort and 
better health by having saved simply their 

Display Cuts and Engraving. 

As we are now approaching the season in 
which school advertising for the ensuing 
year is to be done, we invite attention to 
proofs of cuts presented on another page ; 
chiefly of cuts which we keep in stock, and 
as examples of those, we prepare on special 
orders. We believe that.our facilities for 
this kind of work is unexcelled in the coun- 
try, either as respects price orquality. 

Those having designs already prepared 
will find our prices for photo-engravi^ 
favorable ; at the same time we guaraatte 
the best of work. '^'* 

An Institution (?) Worthy its Founder. 

A few months since we received, and paid 
ten cents extra postage on. a package post- 
marked Oberlin. O., containing a bvmdle of 
flitb, an insulting message, and sevend 
sheets of paper covered with writing exer- 
cises, so peculiarly "Michaeliau " in their* 
character that we at once returned the pack- 
age to G. W. Michael, alleging that it evi- 
dently came from him or his institution (?). 
lie acknowledged its receipt, and, without 
positively denying its authorship, said 
(we quote his own written words) : " Some 
of my pupils probRb|^ sent it, but it is a 
d small thing to get insulted at." 

On May 23d another similar package, evi- 
dently from the same source, came, with 
nine cents extra postage due, and post- 
marked Oberiiii, O. Additional to nauseat- 
ing filth WHS a bogus subscription list, com- 
posed of the most obscene terms imaginable 
arranged to represent names. 

The internal evidence of the packages 
themselves respecting their source, united 
with Michael's admission as above quoted, 
apparently fixes their origin upon Michael's 
Pen Art Hall. Anonymous communications, 
at best, have ever been justly stigmatized as 
low, mean, and cowardly; but when insulting 
and obscene, they betray the vei-y sub-strata 
of biiniaa depravity, and the moral (V) al- 
mo.'^phere of any place, not lo say that of a 
so-called educational institution, from which 
they can emanate, must be most blighting to 
all who inhale its peculiar fragrance. 

Certainly it should be no matter of sur- 
prise that the conductor of such an institu- 
tion should occasionally find the effluvia 
such as to render a migration, if not a neces- 
sity, at least very desirable. 

Since writing the above, and just as we are 
ready to go to press, the June number of the 
"slang Advocate" is received. In it we find 
a copy of a note which we addressed to 
Michael, respecting the second of the above 
mentioned packages, which be facetiously 
calls blackmail, and professes to disbelieve 
that such packages were received. Of 
the first we have his own written acknow- 
ledgment ; the second we hold, and it may 
confront him, when he may least desire to see 
it. We are not given to making statements 
which we cannot sustain. We have on file 
a somewhat extensive package of odor- 
iferous literature that has emonated from the 
various fields of Michael's ' ' missionary . 
work " during the ten years past, from ^ 
which we may cull a few facts which will £ 
at least be entertaining, if not instructive fO 
to those contemplating any similar mission ^ 
ary laboi-. ^^^ 

The Journal for July — 

Will be mailed immediately after the Fourth^ 
all matter intended for it should be si 
once. Owing to the shortness of timi 
the heavy pressure of our other dutie 
July number will contain but eight pageS! 
which we trust its readers will overiook. it^ 
view of the fact that the number coutaiuinf^ 
the Convention report of the last year con- 
tained twenty pages, and it is most probable 
>hat the report this year will require an 
equal number. 

tl jg 

Ames' Compendium of Practical - 
and Artistic Penmanship. 

This work, as its title implTes. is a coin . 
pkte e.-semplification of the p^cjiimaii's arl, 
in every department. It consists of seventy- ; 
two 11x14 inch plates, giving instruction _ * 
and copies for plain writing, flourishing, 
lettering, and designing of every kind of " 
artistic pen-work. It has forty-two different 
standard and ornate alphabets, and a large 
variety of engrossed memorials, resolutions, ■ 
diplomas, headings, title pages; 

We « 

Shallweseeyou attbec^evAition? Why, 
certainly, every live- tcacter who proposes 
to honor his profession, Tieep uji with the 
times, and kno^v iBa'*co-wdrker8. will be 

:onfident that this worlc 
presents to Ihi^enman or artist a greater 
and more useful variety of pen-work than 
any other work upon penmanship ever 
bifore published. Price by mail lately re- 
duced from $5.00 lo |3.50, at which price 
it is the cheapest hook of its sjjje and 
character published. ^^ 

Any person who orders it from us, .and ■ ' 
does not find it all that we claim, are- at ^• 
liberty to at once return it to wi^ ami hove • •-» 
their money refunded. '^ ^ 

1 a^ 


■m ^^-'mm^^^ .M^ 

The Journal for July 

will be issued the first week of the month, 
in order that we muy go to the roiivenlion 
iinhurdened with the care of the July num- 
ber. All matter designed for that Dumber 
"lioiild lie forwarded at once. 

.'ill be 

The lesson in the July niimbe 
given hy Prof. II. W. Shiiyler. author of 
Shayler's Compendium of Practical Writing, 
special teacher of penmanship in the public 
schools of Portland, Maine. 

New Books. 

T/i^ XeiB St/in<Itird Commercial Bookkeep- 
iiff. by J. C. Bryant. M. D.. Buffalo, N.Y., 
is a work of 160 pages, and as far as we are 
able to judge of it. after a careful examina- 
tion, it is an admirable treatise upon the 
subject of accounting. It covers the entire 
science of single and double entry in a clear, 
terse, and comprehensive manner. Every 
tenclier and student of bookkeeping should 
have a copy. The publication of this, as 
well as other books of Mr. Bryant's series of 
bookkeeping test-books, has been delayed 
through the dealruction by tire of many of 
the plates when ready for the press. The 
book is equally valuable as a class or hand- 
book. Vor price and other information see 
advertisement on another page. 

y/u! New Aritiimftk, hy 300 authors, is 
the title of a book just issued by Eaton, 
Gibson ii Co.. Buffalo, N. Y., and Toronto, 
Ontario. The material for the work has 
been procured upon the novel plan of offer- 
ing prizes for contributions of problems or 
other matter for the work, and from such 
prize contributions hy 300 competitors, the 
book has been compiled. To wbat success 
the work wilJ attain as ii class book it is too 
early to conjecture. Tne book is mailed for 
examination for fifty ctnrs, which ^ ill be a 
good investment for any one int-.resled in 
the teaching or study of arithmettc. 

Exchange Items. 

The Art, Amateur for June contains de- 
signs for a mirror frame (^ulips). a dessert 
plate (myrtle), wood carviiig (swamp rose), 
four doilies, and a fireplace facing of seven- 
teen tiles (nasturtiums), besides two groups 
of jolly little girla for the decoration of a 
banging letter-rack. The frontispiece Is a 
fine drawing of a remarkable Italian Renais- 
sance cabinet, brought to tbis country by 
General Meade, Minister to Spain. A strik- 
ing feature is the admirable charcoal draw- 
ing of "La Belle Poulard," the famous 
hostess of the inn at Mount St. Michel, a 
celebrated haunt of artists in France, ""riie 
Prize Fund Exhibition is reviewed at length, 
with illustrations of the principal, pjctui^es. 
There are valuable practical articles on ama- 
teur photography, scene painting, charcoal 
drawing, wall decoration, and frame em- 
broidery, and the usual editorial, dnimatic, 
literary, and correspondence departments are 
ably sustained. Price 35 cents. Montague 
Marks, Publisher, 38 Union Square, New 

The June Wi^ Aimke brings us into the 
season of the roses. " Kate Oxford's One 
Talent," by Nora Perry, is excellent, show- 
ing how a girl wa.i successful with her one 
worked talent, in earning her living by t '.king 
photographs. "The Wind-Mill Pilgrim- 
age." by Amanda B. Uarris. has twelve very 
fine illustrations. There are long and inter- 
esting articles by Lucy C. Lillie on Princess 

Michael guilty of bothf;ihi I- ! i . I i 
rism. and to the charge of fulsubood wc t:;ui 
bear full witness, viz.. in that Michael, in 
his "slang Advocate." alleged that with 
special reference to articles contributed by 
Peirce to the Jocrnal, we inserted a notice 
denying(V)responsibility for sentiments there- 
in expressed. ThestatementMichaelknew to 
be maliciously false. The item referred to 
was general, and has stood in the 
from neorly its first publication, obviously 
referring specifically to no article or writer, 
but alike to all that appeared in the Journal 
outside of its editorial columns. According 
to his recent sowing Michael ought soon to 
niise a crop of whirlwind that will occupy 
the remainder of his life in the harvest. 

Par/card's Shortliatid Heportrr for May, 
like its predecessors is overflowing with good 
things about shorthand and other kindred 
topics. Any person interested in its line, 
who has not already made a deposit of $2.00 
with Prof. Packard for the Reporter for one 
yejir has been recreant to their own interest, 
and should put themselves right by doing so 
at once. Now don't forget Packard's Re- 
porter, SOfl Broadway, New York, 

Kot£« and Qmries. published by S. C. & 
L. M, Gould, Manchester, N. H., for |1.00. 
is a most instructive and interesting publi- 
cation. Send 10 cents for sample copy. 

The PuMit^ Herald, published by Lum 
Smith, Philadelphia, Pa,, for 50 cents per 
year, devotes a large share of its space to the 
exposure of the numerous chariatans and 
frauds, who. by various devices and under 
various aliases, are victimizing the public 
through the mails. Those who have been, 
or would avoid becoming the victims of such 
sharpers will certainly get the price of a 
year's subscription in satisfaction from a 
single number of the Herald. 

The Golden Argosy, published weekly by 
Frank A. Munsey, 81 Warren Street, New 
York, for %2.m per year, is a well gotten up 
story and literary paper for young people. 
Send 5 cents for a sample copy. 

The Roclt^ier Commercial Reoicw, pub- 
lished monthly by the Rochester Business 
University, is always interesting, and is 
among the best college periodicals published. 
Mailed one year for 50 cents. 

The Ohio Business College QiuiTterly, Vol. 
1, No. 1, by J. W. Sharp, Delaware, Ohio, 
presents a fine appeiirance for a school jour- 
nal. Mailed one year for 25 cents. 

the bride of 

supply of 


Prince Henry of V, 

nor's Daughter, i 

a very interesliui: i 

lures and poem-- jn 

enterwinment in 

Chatjuiqua reading, which is regulariy pre 

pared by Wide Airake. Published by D. 

Lothrop & Co., Boston. Mass.. for |3 iiyear, 

or single copies for 25 cents. 

The Western penman, by Worthington & 
Palmer, Chicago, III., is edited with ability. 
well illustrated, good in i(s typography, and 
is well worth the small sum of CO cents, its 
subscription price for one year. The May 
number just received is of more than usual 
interest. An article on " Mobby Riding." by 
W. F. Uoih, is good. In items under head- 
ings of " Not Responsible," and "Plagia-,"' C. H. Peirce fairly prove-s G. W. 

The Would-Be " Copy-Book An- 

nihilator ■'^?icked Up and 

>' ■■ [Special to the .Joi-iin.\i,,] 

There appeared in the paper called 
Michael's Advocate, a challenge by Michael, 
daring any man in America to debate the 
copy-book question with him. Such sweep- 
ing challenges usually proceed from men of 
unenviable reputation, denominated chnrli 
tans, quacks, mountebanks, etc., wha dis- 
gust the public with their ufi^jarrantable 
pretensions. Such peiWog do nfet' expect 
any one to do more than read their Chal- 
lenges. It was therefore, no doubt, a^reat 
surprise to Michael to receive a realVccept- 
ance from Prof. H; C. Clark. The question 
naturally suggested itself to the minds of 
penmen and others, as to \vhy this challenge 
was accepted. Well. Prof. Clark, widely 
known as a genial, clear-headed gentleman, 
with a keen sense of thejiumorous, prob- 
ably foresjiw what % ridiculous figure 
Michael would. cut, if his challenge were 
taken up in earnest ; -JicDce the acceptance 
was written andjorwarded.' Armngemenis 
were entered into betiwten the parties to hold 
the debate in Clark's college rooms in Erie, 
Pa., Friday evening. May 22, and the ques- 
tion formulated was as folio^vs: 

Rffolred. That the copy-book srstcn 
leaching writing should t>e aboK^hed froni 
all schools. (A very modest (y) and modci»> 
ale (?) proposiiioBwKVt"- , 

The fine, large iiaj'of Clark's (,'ollege was 
'^the place agreed upon for the contest, and 
notwithstandi^j^ij^ouring^raih on the 
night ^f the contest, at*8 o'clodfe, abnui :iOO 
ladies &nd g«^cJncn were gathered and 
cheerfully semBB; At the head of the room 
was a fine blackboard, in front of that a 
small pjatform tax the debaters, directly 
facilig the platftrmTand hkcbhoiyd were the 

' I-, j'l- ^ ^i.ntlenicn of (he highest 
rcspuctubility. well known as practical edu- 
cators : Prof. H. C. Missimer, Principal of 
the Erie High School, Prof. Jones, Supt. of 
Erie public schools, Prof. Colgrove, Princi- 
pal Corry. Pa., High School. Prof. Morri- 
son, Supt. of Erie County public schools, 
was present. The last named gentle- 
man had been agreed upon as one of the 
judges, but arriving lale. Prof. Jones was 
agreed upon as a substitute. 

The president of the meeting. Prof. S. S. 
Spaulding, was seated near the platform 
facing the judges and the audience. 

The contestants took their places promptly 
in the arena. 

Michael, a man over six feet in height, 
rather untidy in his get up. of swarthy com- 
plexion, hard cheek and sinister expression 
of face, was not well calculated on the whole 
to produce a favorable impression as to his 
culture, characteristics, or habits. 

Prof, Clark, a gentleman of medium 
height, fine figure, neatly attired, well 
formed head, regular features, full suit of 
dark hair, heavy black side- whiskers, eyes 
beaming through light, gold-rimmed spec- 
tacles, presented, alto2:ether, a cool, culti- 
vated and <!(>ni;il ;ippr:ii-;iiirf'. in Striking con- 

Micha^l \\-A- iM.i i,in,„hirc-d by the presi- 
dent. Ill- 1 1 ink till jihiilnnn and occupied 
fifty minutes, reading from manuscript his 
so-called affirmative arguments, which were 
in the main a rehash of what he had hith- 
erto published in his Advocate. At intervals 
he would leave his manuscript to illustrate 
points on the blackboard, 
exercises, most of them in i 
tolerably well executed, but his proctical 
blackboard writing, was scarcely up to a 
medium standard, The challenger pretty 
thoroughly emptied his over charged gas- 
bag in thus opening the debate. 

Prof. Clark was then introduced, and pro- 
ceeded to discuss the resolution in the nega- 
tive. He occupied at the outset about ten 
minutes, in showing that copy-books were 
not only indispensable for the use of chil- 
dren in the schools of our country, but eco- 
nomical as well as to the expense, when the 
cosl of their use is put in comparison with 
that of loose paper. He then showed from ex- 
amination papers improvement made by the 
children in the schools of Erie, their'ages 
ranging from 12 to U years. The papers 
were ioteiesting in matter, and showed at 
the .same time real excellence in handwriting, 
lie stated to the judges that the children had 
iieen instructed according to the Spenceriau 
system as embodied in copy-books, charts 
and manual, which were used in the Erie 
public schools. Next he presented a com- 
plete set of the Spencerian copy-books, that 
the judges might see. then and there, the 
system that had been assailed and denounced 
by Michael. He further presented for ex- 
amination abundance of specimens of writ- 
ing from public schools elsewhere, which 
demonstrated conclusively the excellent 
practical results that are produced in schools 
where the Spencerian Copy-books are used 
in teaching. 

The professor at one stage of his presenta- 
tion said: "Although these pupils are only 
About 14 years of age, yet their thoughts, 
use of language, and their handwriting is 
Jtetter on an average than the productions of 
ihc individual, more than forty years of age, 
who wtnild if he could, have children de- 

of many of the Spencerian forms. The per- 
son who steals productions of brain and 
hand from others, and tries to palm them 
off as his own, would find it judicious not 
only to avoid open discussion, but to say 
little or nothing that may remind people of 
the -source from which he has purioined his 
stock in trade. 

Michael a number of times tried to inter- 
rupt Prof. Clark in his arguments and ex- 
hibits, but was called to order by the presi- 
dent, and directed to take his seat. 

At the conclusion of the argument the 
judges promptly their ballots. These 
were received by the president, who an- 
nounced the decision to be unanimously in 
the negative. Prof. Clark was congratu- 
lated on his prescnlatioti of his subject and 
his victory. The victory was really regarded 
as " almost a walk-over " for Prof. Clark. 

Thus Michael and the Michaelarian sys- 
tem were annihilated. He stole away to 
the railroad station, anxious as soon as pos- 
sible, to put miles of distance between him- 
self and Clark's Commercial College, the 
scene of his humiliation and defeat. 


It was certainly a fine exhibition of con- 
descension on the part of Prof. Clark to de- 
vote an entire evening of his time for the 
discomfiture of our modern "Don Quixote." 
but we fear that through conceit or hallu- 
cination, like his ancient prototype, the 
modern " Don," will construe the most hu- 
miliating defeat into rollicking victory, and 
only gather fresh courage to assail other 
innumerable foemen that his disordered 
fancy may conjure. 

F. i-. C. Daii^ilk-. Ill,— .Vre visitors per- 
mitted to attend the meetings of the B. E. 
Association ? 

Most assuredly. Come on, and bring your 
sweetheart with you, 

G. H. B., Atlanta, Ga.— Can the whole- 
aim l.p successfully used for eomnicm wri- 

liiij i(i-) -\. .<•.]<• fi I M i- iir iiM'ii for making 

wnlmg i 

prived of the valuable training which is 
provided for them." 

Michael was pale as a ghost and trembled 
from-liead to foot with agitation, when con- 
fronted with such facts and arguments. 

Another point made by Prof. Clark was, 
the dife effects upon the handwriting of the 
pupil that would follow Michael's plan of 
having the teachers write nil the copies. He 
illMstrated on the board the large round 
handjthat one teacher would set; the fine_ 
sliarp;hand that the same pupil would be re- 
quired to learn from the next teacher ; a 
vertical hand from the next, a back hand 
from another, and so on until the bewildered 
pupil would have only a mongrel hand that 
would btt intolerable through life. He also, 
by comparison of Michael's copies, pub- 
lished in his hook and in his Adnocate. with 
those of the Spencerian Copy-books, showed 
the judges how Michael had not only copied 
nearly all his letters from the Spencerian, 
but that he had even made e«reful tracings 

y-'/.'"— li i-v nmI irii|.M-.ii>l<' iljat the whole- 
arm may be so .liscipliued iis to e.vecutegood 
practical writing, but it is safe to say that it 
would cost untold practice, both to acquire 
and to retain the power to write well with 
the whole-arm. It is too long a lever to be 
easily operated upon so small and accurate a 
motion as is required for good practical 

Second—The capitals in body writing 
should be made with the fore-arm move- 
ment, and never with the whole-arm. Whole- 
arm capitals should be made only in profes- 
sional writing, *r in hettdiugs and super- 
scriptions, wher* they ^y be written on a 
larger scale and withgreater license. 

G. A. B. Syracuse. N. Y,— Why are the 
small letters a aud r made to extend above 
the other short letters ? 

The s terminates with a point and the r 
with a small projection, if the point of the 
one and projection of the other be brought 
within the height of the other short letters, 
both these letters will appear comparatively 
dwarfed. Thiflfact has led to the rule with 
authors and ttiHcherig that these letters be 
extended one-quarter of a space above other 
short letters. 

S i; I: ii.M |..| N Y.— Would you 
a(l\Mi . , ', ,1 nmvement fora book- 

kei|Mi ;> I signature for photo- 

engi i\ (iij ri. . I I.- 1,1 iiiru on unruled paper ? 

U) Ye.s, A difficulty about resting the 
arm is experienced when writing toward the 
bottom of a page in a thick book, which may 
be overcome by using an arm-rest. (2) The 
ordinary blue lines on ruled paper do imt in 
any way interfere with photo-engraving, 

E. W. II.. St. Louis, Mo.— I enclose a 
couple of pieces of paper — will you not 
please favor me with a small specimen of 
your penmanship, including your auto- 
graph V 

We would gladly comply with your re- 

{Hical, bill wc arc reminded that to do so in 
a credilablc manner would require several 
minutes of our time ; and then if it is really 
good you will exhibit it lo your friends, 
miiny of whom would at once extend a sim- 
itar invitation. If it is made hurriedly or 
without care, it might not be elegant iiccord- 
ing to your standard, and our repuljition 
would suffer injury accordingly. IJut, 
metliinks you say, what's the very few 
minuU'3 that it would take you to ex- 
ecute a small specimen V Suppose it be 
U-n, which is moderate, with the super- 
scription and mailing, and suppose wc have 
fifty such invitations daily. "lOO miuutcs 
would be required— eight hours and twenty 
minutes— more than the working time of a 
day. And where would be our eompcusn- 
tion and our own business ? If it were only 
Ihe matter of your single request, we should 
at once comply, but experience Iia.s tjiught 
us that to comply with all such re(iuests is 
simply impossible. So we must uniformly 
decline tliem all. 

G \ W Mri 

> —In the Ipsso 

We liave before explained, but never be- 
fore illustrated. We repeat the illustration 

that our answer may be more readily iippre- 
ciuleii. Teachers and authors illustrating 
the proper holding of the pen for the great- 
est freidoiu of finjrer movement, have used 
the posfiliou in which the holder crossed the 
fore-fiiigcr just front of Ihe knuckle, but 
when using the fore-arm movement there is 
less occasion for extreme freedom of linger 
action, and since the pen is more easily 
held in its position by dropping it back 
of the knuckle, and besides, coming at 
more acute angle with the paper, the 
pen glides nufre easily, and is loss lia- 
ble to calch in the paper, Ihe latter posi- 
tion has come to be very generally and prop- 
erly adopted and advocated by fore-arm wri- 
ters and teaehere. 

T. S. D.. HuutsviJle, Mo.— Would you 
advise drilling beginners on the finger move- 
That would depend upon circumstances. 
If the beginner was a mere child in a pri- 
mary grade, and writing upon such desks as 
are usually furnished in those gnides in public 
schools, we should make no attempt to teach 
anythinii but rmi,'('r movement. If the be- 
ginner is sulHcicutly advanced in years to 
have developed muscle and will power, we 
should begin instruction upon the Uiuscuhir 
movement. In our judgmenl, to attempt to 
teach muscular or fore-arm movement to a 
mere child is an utter absurdity. First, a 
child has no requisite muscular development 
for such practice, and second, they lack the 
will for Ihe rli»sc and patient application 

Fine Specimens of Penmanship, 

There are a few copies of the Blaine and 
Logan campaign pieces left, which we will 
now mail at '^Uc. each, or by the dozen $1.25. 

'Ih'-i i>ii"- I'll, iior have they been, 

iiilri.i I. I ii:\ iih I purpose than assiicci- 
mill-. .1 ,1111 ui priiiiianship. and, us such, 
iin- iieli)> «i»iili liie price named. Thecopies 
are handsomely printed on plate paper, 

A Commercial street man wears a cham- 
piou belt for meanness just now. Hisclerk 
is (piite an expert penman and was prac- 
ticing his art in shading the letters on the 
addresses of some envelopes, when the eui- 
jiloyer happened to overlook him. and sjiid, 
" Mr. Paybook, I would not shade those 
letters; il wastes the ink nwinUy.-— Boston liiilUtin. 


postaee paid ianillnt/i' 

\nrev. proportion of theeo padcagco 

iging ft-ora two ociil* anwurrt. 
iii.ui inniree. vtfO ttro ol>lrBO(l to poy. Tills Is 
'fpiy a dttsirftole consideration for a gratuitous 

The Writiug-ltuler has become a standard 
article with those who profess to have a suit- 
alile ontlii for practical writing. It is to the 
writer what the chart and compass ia to the 
mariner. The Writing-Ruler is a reliable 

nm&nship chart and compass, sent by the 

— 1 receipt of 30 centa. 

ilrh.of I 

Letters the style of which were worthy 
of note have been received from : 

C. L. Stubbs.the Nelson Business College. 
Cincinnati, Ohio, a letter and club of sub- 

D. li. Musselman, Gem City Business Col- 
lege. Quincy, III. 

E. Schworm, Ottumwa, Iowa. 
W. F. Lyon, Youngstown, Ohio. 

.T. W. Washington, teacher and pen artist, 
Salem. Mass. He says. " I regard your Guide 
one of the very best works 1 have seen on 

W. V. Chambei-s. Mt. Vernon, Iowa. 

F. W. H. Wiesahnlm, St. Louis, Mo. 
F. W. Ireland, Denver, Col. 
Lyman P. Spencer, Washington, D. C. 
n most elegtint style. 

A. C. Jones. Lebanon, Ohio. 

B. J. Tolland, Beardstown, 111. 

G. W. Wood, McKeesport, Pa. 

E. Kenny, Jr., Manistee, Mich. 

IL W. Flickingcr. National College of 
Commerce, Philadelphia, Pa., excellent in 

C. A. Bauer, Dillsburg. Pa. 

W. F. Roth, M. D.. Manheim, Pa. 

J. G. Anderson. Falcon. Tenu. 

C. N. Hamilton, New Augusta. Ind. 

W. A. Bancroft. West Point. Miss., a let- 
ter and a flourished bird. 

J. F. Panetti. Baltimore, Md , a letter, 
cards, and a flourished swan. 

H, W. Quaintancc, Calile, Ill.,aletteraud 
set of capitals. 

II. N. Staley, Baltimore. Md., a very good 
specimen of business writing. 

G. TI. Chapin, clerk in N. Y. Assembly, 
Albany, a letter and cards. 

Charles A. Faust, Chicago, 111., a letter 
and cards. 

Charles Dannott Fletcher. Boston, Eng- 
land, a letter in good practical style. 

William G. Trumble. New Orleaus, Ln. 
He says : " I was glad to see you after the 
compendiums and copy-book annihilators ; 
they deserve it." 

J. W. Holme?', Brownsville, Ohio, aletter 
with tVii-Mifv riKil iccfMif specimens of writ- 
ing;, -ii^iw 111 III 1 1 i I it improvement since 

suii- I I I . iuuiiNAi*. He says, 

■■YiHii ' III!,' copy writiugmeets 

A. H. bteadmuu, Toledo. Ohio, Business; 
College, a letter, cards, and a photo-en- 
graved copy of engrossing which reflect 
credit upon Mr. Steadman as a writer and 
peu artist. 

H. C. Carver, teacher of penmanship at 
Waseai, Minn. 

F. E. Persons, penman, Rushford, N. Y. 

G. G. Brown, Millerstown, Pa. 

W. K. Glenn, Trenton, N. J., Business 

would not do without it for 

1). A. Grimths, Capital Business College, 
Austin, Texas. 

F. J, Graham, Fordham, N. Y. 

W. A, Bancroft, West Point, Miss. He 
says : ■■ I must express my admiration of the 
teach writing here with pen in 

W. T. Th<nnas. Musselman's Business 
College, Qviincy. III., a letter. 

G. A. Ward. Bonducl, Wis. 

A. J. Scarborough. Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 
Business College. 

C. P. Zener, Audubon. Iowa. 

T. J. Wilson. Riddk's. Oregon, a letter 
in a good practical hand, for which he says 
he is indebted to the JounsAi.. 

A. J. Scarborough, ('edar Rapids. (Iowa) 
Biisiiiuss College, a letter. 

A. II. Hinman, of Iliuman's Business 
College, Worcester, Mass. 

A. J. Hall. Central Indiana Normal 
School and Business Institute, Ladoga, 
Ind. , a letter and club of subscribei-s. 

C. L. Perkins. Norwich. Conn., a letter 
and several designs for birds. 

A. B. Katkauiier, Farmington. N. Y.. a 
letter aflourislied design of sword andijuill 
a set of capit lis and caid designs 


And School Items 

C. H. Kimmig. late a pupil of H. W. 
Flickingcr. has opened an office at :i:JO Arch 
Street, Philadelphia, Pa,, for the execution 
111 ;ill kiiiiKnf ;iriistic pen-work. His letter. 

. iiri- mil i-ihii specimens inclosed are in 
^'^'"1 i\li lie says: "I am greatly 

I your eompen- 

cs|jccially in my ornamental letter- 

J. W. Shott is teaching writing at the 

American Normal College, Logansport, Ind. 

Charles E. (lie Metronolilan Busi- 

Tiu- aTiiininH'eiiiciiI v.iuU ;irr m u i 1 

;iiii! hi-hlv sui:-e^li>e ii> (inii il. -i^u \\ 1. 
return our thanks for ibc iiniialiuii, .imi n;- 
gret that we cannot be present, 

G. W. Michael announces that he will re- 
move his "Peu Art Hall" from Oberiin, O., 
to Delaware, in the fall. Wc congratiUate 
Obcrlin — but, oh ! poor Delaware. 

We are indebted to Prof. W. H, Duff for 
several interestingandvahmbleselections for 
the JoonNAL, for which we hereby return 

2 hand and the J 

1 the other." 

r thanks. 
The annual 

of the students of 

Charles A. Aiken, of 298 West Fifth 
Street, Cincinnati. Ohio, announces in an- 
other column Jhat he will supply fancy col- 
ored inks in boxes, twelve bottles for il.OO. 

P. T. Benton, special teacher of writing 
in the public schools of Crestou, Iowa, rc- 

greulest impruvemeut. Specimens Uy Cla- 
rion Ktauchticld are the second best, while 
tliofic by Ella Russell and Florence Swan are 
worthy of favorable mention. Prof, Hentim. 
in a handsomely written ku.t s;i\^ i 

shall certainly send you il l;it LI I III'' "i uK 

scribers in the fall, as it is \i I \ r^ni iiii 

it is those of our pupils who im ^uN riii" is 
to the Journal that are making the j; 
improvement in their writing. Mr. Ugg is 
a subscriber. 

hands of every one interested iu haudwriliug. 
Teachers and pupils should prize it. The 
illustrations jui- iKimlifulIy tSnisbed, and the 
klter iiii ■ I linn ii iinvr Ihe average. The 
best vMNii, ., ,1,., 11, the United States 
areiiimi _ i. . i ■ iims, and the essays 
onwiilii:,, .uid iliiv,iii- will amply repay 
perusal, lu looking over the pages of this 
spirited monthly, the first glance reveals the 
fact that the Jouunal is much ahead of the 
ordinary compendium circular, — The Pinan- 

Lesson in Practical Penmanship. 

The July lesson will be given by U. W. 
Shaylor of Portland, Maine. 

The August lesson will be given by H.W. 
Kllsworth, author of the Ellsworlh .system 
of copy-books, upon the special subject of 
■'Tmcing as a Method of Teaching Pen- 

Ill September, S. U. Webster of Rock 
(reck. Ohio, will give a lesson on primsiry 

C, H, 

The r< 

already ■ 

times as will be mutually acceptable : 

H. W. Flickingcr. Philadelphia. Pa,. 
Thos. J. Stewart, Trenton, N, J„ D, II. 
Faricy. Trenton. N. J,, W. li, (Jlen. Tren- 
ton N J HA Spencer N(. "^ ili H 
J McGu New ^oik M I ( II i nth 
Vllanti Ga T L Tmku Newaik N I 
C Bi\ks Duluque lowi W II PUrick 
iiiltni tL Ml ^ Bnmtt Biltnnou Md 
1 1 1 otlan 1 C lutou 111 V k I-wacs 
^ Ij I luri H I loomis Sjenc r u 
i " College Dclioit Mich li ih 

M W Ol erhn (Ohm) College 

Wi. aie very sure that the piactmal mfor 
mation that will be presented in the series 
of Lpssous that will he given by such repre- 
.sentativc teachers as are named above will 
be of solid advantage to all teachci's and 
pupils of writing. 

80i) Broadway, N. Y., May 27, 188.1. 
My Dear Ames ; My attention is called 
anew to the Penman's Art JotTRSAi., as it 
comes to me this month looking so fresh 
and bright and readable, I compare il wiih 
the average class publication and am struck 
with it-^ superioril;' in almost all respects. 
'i IU l];ivc at last' found a good printing 

I M -mid the new clean lyi>e and artistic 

;iri;iii;.'< ^lent of matter arc beyond criticism. 
Your cut. are worked splendidly, and the 
entire "get up" of the paper is exceflent. 
But if I hatl to slop here I wouldn't begin. 
It is the liti:rary character of the paper 
which pleases me most of all. and especially 
so as I have sopn this character developing 
so gradually ard surely during the past 
eight years. We all know that you make 
no point of literary excellence, and that you 
depend for your matter almost entirely upott 
unprofessional writers ; but I don't think 
you need fear comparison with the best of 
our literary papere. It seems likely to me 
that you have at hist come to a point in your 
editorial carter where you can select from 
the abundance at hand, the mutter which 
you deem fit for your columns. I would not 
make comparisons, for, as Shakespeare 
says, they are "odorous," but I would call 
idteution to two or three contributions iu 
your May number. First among these is 
Mr. R. C. Spcuccr's "talk" on the Philos- 
ophy of Loss and Gain, which is. like every- 
thing that this veteran teacher and philoso- 
pher says, all "gain" to the reader, and 
affords to us, his coworkers, a fair indica- 
tion of the useful work he is doing in his 
1 11, , 1 Then, leaving out the excellent ad- 
1 .1 Prof. Ames on "The Scientific 

I i.ilion of Handwriting." which you 

il II I want mc to characterize, there is a 
carefully prepared lesson in practical writing 
by Mr. Bfennett, who has almost made mc 
retract my severe censures on the "bird 
iiiil i|iiill rvw/.c" by sending you the most 

mil I niiiiiiiiion of curves that I have 

■ 11 II MM i \\ illiains left us — and that you 
■Ar<- |ii-iiiiiil ill reproducing. Next comes 
Paslnor, who never writes poorly, and 
Chandler II. Peirce, who is always worth 
reading, even when he writes about him- 

„ If-/"'.-..'"'/ ^vlirn lir V.Ti'r. '-hnMl |,misclf— 

^Mllll,^ 111 air. sr ■ nmi nn.ilh, llic edi- 
torials from your own jxti, which are 
always well conceived and well put, and 
show to us what a faithful, earnest, honest 
man we have at the helm of our " ofllcial" 
paper. I hope you are making money out 
of the Joi'RNAi,. and that you may never be 
tempted to abandon it or change its char- 
acter. Every decent man iu ovir business 
should glory in it, and I um sure such is the 
feeling. Ever youre, Packard. 


3 copies of the JoiitNAl,, 10 cte, 

Facts About the Convention. 
Ak llic date of the Jacksonville meeting 
rirnwn near, there are doubtlcAs certain ques- 
tions conocniing route, expenses, distances, 
olinmte and tUc like, which many of the 
busincHS educators would like to have an- 
swered. :Thi8 is a big country, and iu order 
lo save time and correspondence, I will an- 
fiu-cr some of these suppositional questions 
iliroufjh the Art Journal, which, I assume, 
is Pt'cti and read by every person intcrwled 
in ilie July meeting. 

ily reference to the mnp of Uic United 
S(alf«, it will be seen that Jacksonville is in 
exactly the same latitude as Indianapolis. 
Colnmbuti, and Philadelphia on the cast, 
and a little north of Denver and San Fran- 
cisco on the west. 

here, propose to return cklc;^iitcs ovtr llii'ii" 
lines for one-third fare, who pay regular 
rates coming to the convention. These 
roads reach Chicago, Detroit, Toledo, Ft. 
Wayne. Indianapolis, St. Louis. Kansas 
City, St. Joseph, Omaha, Council Bluffs, 
Des Moines, Burlington, Keokuk, Quincy, 
Peoria, aud all intervening points. It is 
hoped that the pame arrangement will yet 
be made throngh to the principal cities east 
and south. Should such be the case, due no- 
tice will be given. 


No positive arrangemeuts for 
will be made before llieassociatiti 
but most fsiTorable eslininlea have been se- 
cured. Mississippi River steamers offer an 
from St. Louis to St. Paul and 
for $24, This will include passage. 

diwlruiif ro be traveled by most of the mem- 
bers, the place of the meeting — a small 
inland city without great attractions — it 
would probably be safe not to predict 
too much. Notwithstanding aUkthls, a 
grand mccttog is assured. No gatherings 
can be otherwise with such veterans of busi- 
ness education in the lead as Bryant, Mayhew, 
Nelson, Packard, Felton. K. C. Spencer. 
Peirce. Sadler. Uill, Lillibridge. Williams* 
Carpenter, and Bryan, closely followed by 
several generations of their professional 

Where is the penman, young or old, who 
can remain indifferent, or willingly absent, 
when such teachers and artists as Ames, 
Duff, Cochnm, Keynolds, Ilinman, Mussel- 
man, II. C. Spencer. Newby, P. R. Spencer. 
McKec, Peirce, Oaboni, Stubbs. Isaacs, and 
a host of other mighty men of the quill are 

We are likely to have delightful weather 
here at the time of the meeting : though in 
selecting wearing apparel for the meeting, 
delegates will do well to remember that July 
is one of the summer monlhe. The build- 
ings in which the sessions are to be held are 
very airy, cool, and pleasiml, and our north- 
ern and eastern friends need not iudtdge 
unnecessary feare of the broiling sun and 
clouds of choking dust. Jacksonville has 
no snow-clad peaks nor fonm-creslod waves 
indeed, but it has a perfect sea of shade 
trees, and actually sprinkles some of its 

1 regrel that the committee has not been 
able, so far, to secure reduced railroad nites 
gouendly. but souieihing has been done in 
that direction. The Wabash aud Chicago 
«S: Alton, the two principal roads centering 

state rooms, and table. The time of the 
trip would be about nine days, thus reduc- 
ing the expenses to the usual outlay for 
board alone at any good hotel. The round 
trip ticket for the Springfield excursion will 
cost $1. 


Ample arrangements at the hotels of the 
city and a large mmiber of excellent private 
boarding houses will be made to accommo- 
date all who attend the meeting. The rates, 
as stated in the committee's circular, will 
range from 75 cents to $3 per day. Those 
who engage for a week or more will, in 
some cases, be boarded for even less. The 
boardingmalterisin the hands of an effi- 
cient commitlee, who will render all needed 
assistance on the arrival of the members. 


Considering the time of the meeting, the 

? With such an array of 
talent, experience, wisdom, and ability, not 
to mention the great teachers of accounts, 
calculations, short hand writing, laws, 
ethics, economics, and other subjects of 
vital importance to business educators, a log 
school-bouse in the back woods would be 
more attractive to the genuine teacher than 
a crystal palace iu the finest city on the con- 
tinent without it. There is no risk, then, 
in predicting a great meeting, the echoes of 
which will not cease to be beard around the 
continent for a twelvemonth. Let every 
teacher who attends come prepared to con- 
tribute his mite aud receive in return a 

G. W. Brown, 
Chairman E.\eculive Committee. 
Jacksonville, III. 
Specimen copies of the JotTtNAL, 10 cts. 

Huxley on the True Weight of 

Professor Iluxlcy asserts that the proper 
weight of man is 154 pounds, made up as 
follows: Muscles and their appurtenances. 
68 poimds ; skeleton, 24 pounds ; skin 10^ 
pounds ; fat, 38 pounds ; brain, 8 pounds ; 
thoracic viscera. 8i pounds; abdominal 
viscera, II pounds; blood which would 
drain from the body, 7 pounds. The heart 
of such a man should beat 75 timcji a min- 
ute, and he should breathe 15 times a minute. 
Iu 34 hours he would vitiate l.T.Jll cubic feet 
of pure air to the extent of 1 per cent, — a 
man, therefore, of the weight nu-ntioued. 
should have 800 cubic feet of welt-vcinihited 
space. lie would throw off by ihe skin 18 
ounces of water. 300 grains of solid matter, 
and 400 grains of carbonic acid every 24 
hours ; and his total loss during that period 
would be 6 pounds of water antl a little more 
lliiin 2 poun<]s of other matter. 

Newspapers of To-day. 

People generally, and even those who may 
be termed steady readers and close observers, 
have but a faint roiiception of llie uiagni- 

tUil.' Uliii irinilrnri' lllr piv.^nt thi-n.untry 

"l"li--"l^- !'■•-■- "1 H„ r-.,-, ,,|,linu of 


iMiiy I, bv livui-i. V. Kowell*!c Co.. of New 
York, ii ;ipp.;ir.s that there are 14.147 papers 
juul pLii(Kii»;ils published in the United 
States and Canada ; of these the United 
States has 13.973. an average of one paper 
for every 3,807 persons. In 1884. the total 
number of news[)apers was less by 823 than 
at present, iiikI while the gain this year is 
not so miirketl as in some previous years, it 
is still considerable. Kansas shows the 
greatest increase, the number being 78, while 
Illinois follows with a gain of 77. It is cu- 
rious to notice that New York, the scene of 
sn mufli political activity during the last 
1 iiiipiiii-'n, should have only about one-third 
H-, in!iii\ new papers as the State of Penn- 
syh:t[ii:i. As an index to the comparative 
growth and prosperity of different sections 
of the co!intry. especially the Territories, 
the number of new papers forms an interest- 
ing study, and may well occupy the atten- 
tion of the curious. 

Odds and Ends. 

Let us have faith that right makes might. 

md m that faith let us to the end dare to do 

oui duty as we understand it.— Abm/unn 

Piobably the youngest telegraph ojicrator 
m the worid is Eula Brown, of Courtney. 
Texas She is but little over seven years of 
ige yet there is hardly a detail of railroau 
telegraphy that she is not familiar with. 
Ilei father has been an operator for years, 
md the little one has passed moat of her 
time m a telegraph office since she was old 
enough to creep. Before she had lewned to 
wiite plamly, she could send a message over 
Ihe wires at a fair rate of speed. — Trot/ 

The following curious sentence contains 
all the ktters of the alphabet: "A quick 
blown fox jumps over the la/.y dog." It is 
I good line for use in the copy-book, be- 
cause the writer is thus able 10 practice on 
all the characters from "a" to "z," 

Teacher (to first pupU).— " What case is 
the noun ? " Pupil. — "Nominative, inde- 
I)endent." Teacher.— " Correct. Next boy 
may take next noun. Give it« case." Sec- 
ond Pupil (falteringly).— "Nominative — " 
Teacher.—" That's right, but what more ? " 
Pupil (questiouingly). — " Independent l" " 
Teacher (severely). — "I should hope a boy 
would know his lesson better thim to say 
' independent' just beeauae the one next him 
happened to have that sort of noun. What 
should you say instead of * independent V ' " 
Pupil (triumphantly, after a 
thought).—" Mugwump I " 

A Binder for Ten Cents. 

Attention is called to a new and couvcnieut 
binder which will hold securely and with 
convenience twelve copies of the Journal, 
sent by mail with full directions, for ten 
cents. Sec advertisement on another page. 

" Guide " is a book of sixty-four large pages, elegantly primed on the finest quality of fine plate-paper, and is devoted exclusively 
,nd copies for Plain Writing. Off-hand Flourishing, and Lettering. We are sure that no other work, of nearly equal 
now before the public that will render as efficient aid to either teachi 
Thirty-two pages are devoted to instruction and copies for plain wrii 
Sixteen pages to alphabets, package-marking, and " 

in all the departments of the penn" 

nil this 

Given free (in paper) 

Fourteen pages to the principle! 

With them agents 

_ DURNAL, one year, for $l ; full bound (in 
to whom liberal discounts will be given. Both the Journal and book 
money with less efiEorl than with any other publication they handle. 

and examples lor flourishing, 
s ; handsomely bound in stiff 
avers) for $1.25, Live agents 
: things that take everywhere, 

Abraham Lincoln's Boyhood, 

" Well, be was at this time uot grown, 
only six feet two inches high [said Dennis 
F. Hanks, cousin of Abraham Inncoln]. 
He was six feet four and oue-hall inches 
when grown — tall, lathy, and gangling — not 
much appearance, not handsome, not ugly, 
but peculiar. This kind of a fellow : If a 
man rode up horseback, Abe would be the 
first one out, up on the fence, and asking 
questions, till his father would give him a 
knock side o' the head ; then he'd go and 
throw at snow-birds or suthin', but ponder- 
in" all the while." 

" Was he active and strong V " 
" He wn.s that. I was ten years older, but 
I couldn't ras-sle him down. His legs wits 
too long for me to throw him. He would 
fling one foot upon my shoulder and make 
me swing corners swift, and his arms .so 
long and strong I My, how he would chop I 
His axe would' flash and bite into a sugar 
tree or sycamore, and down it would come. 
If you beard him falliu' trees in a clearin' 
you would say there were three men at work 
by the way trees fell. But be was never 
sassy or quarrelsome. I've seen him walk 
into a crowd of sawin' rowdies, and tell 
some droll yarn, and bust them all up. It 
was the same when he was a lawyer ; all 
eyes, whenever he riz, were on him ; there 
was a suthin' peculiarsome about him." 
" "What did you teach him to write with ?" 
"Sometimes he would write with a piece- 
of charcoal, or ihe p'inl of a burnt stick, on 
the fence or floor. We got a little paper at 
the country town, and I made ink out of 
the blackberry-brier root and put a litile 
copperas in it. It was black, but the cop- 
peras would eat the paper after awhile. I 
I made his first pen out of a turkey buzzard's 
fenther ; them's good for pens. We had no 
geese tliem days. Aftyr be learned to write 
he was scrawlin' his name everywhere ; 
fiumetiraes he would writ* it on the white 
sand down by the crick bank, and leave it 
till the fresh would blot it out." 

t\h. Dennis, that name is written now, not 
in sand ; high on the heroic roll in Liberty's 
proud temple, above the names -of all save 
one. Next to the name of the imnwrtal 
Washington, blazes the sfgnature of the 
blameless nilcraud matchless man, Abraham 
Lincoln. That plain name is now a kinglicr 
title than is worn on earth. Yes. that's so. 
and rightly, too. Not for his greatness : he 
was not the greatest man that ever lived. 
Imi he was the honestest. I reckon he never 
did ii mean act. I could see he didn't know 
hinv, an" he never learned. 

■Did you have any idea of his future 
greatness ? " 

■• No ; it was a new country, and he was 
a mw boy ; rather a bright and likely lad. 
but the big world .seemed far ahcnd of him. 

We were all slow-goin' folks, but he had it 
in him. though we never suspected it." 
" Did he take to hoolcs eagerly 1 " 
" No ; we bad to hire him first. But when 
he got a taste, it was the old story — we had to 
pull the sow's ears to get her to the trough, 
and pull her tail togetheraway. He read a 
great deal, and had a wonderful memory- 
wonderful. Never forgot anything." 
" What church did Abe attend ? " 
"The Baptist. I'll tell you a circumstance 
about him. He would come home from 
church, and put a box in the middle of the 
cabin floor, and repeat Ihe sermint from text 
10 doxology. I've heard him do it often." — 
Chnrlesion NciM and Cornier. 

E. K. Isaacs, of Valparaiso, Ind.. has 
favored us with samples of his "Ideal "pens 
and says : " Can't you say a good word for 
them." Yes, of course we can ; we are now 
writing with one of them and it is just love- 
ly. Head Mr, Isaacs' advertisement aud 
send for some of them — and hold us respon- 
ible if they are not good. 

Pictures of Yourself. 

nc new style pic- 
^'1 once, we will 

ivlied stamp p7u>- 

\<\, upon receipt 
11 to copy from 
I'vided you will 

i>w pictures, and 

' ' / ' ' // ;:( liefer to Post- 

ster (jr iiTiy liimlt. Iteniit by postal note 
■e^isturcd letltr (no atamps taken), and 
ution paper. Address, 

Will C. TtmNEn & Co.. 

Columbus, O, 

Free to Farmers. 

To secure lUO.OOO new subscribers during 
the next sixty days, we will actually send 
the best farmers magazine (28 page, illus- 
trated) in the U. S. free for one entire year 
to every one sending us at once the names of 
ten farmers and 20 two-cent stampsfor post- 
age, etc. Regular price, $1.00. Address, 
City amd Countbt, 

Columbus, O. 

Bemember that now is the time to sub- 
ficribe for the Journal, while you can get 
all the back numbers and begin with the 
year aud the vohime. Two subscriptions 
will be received for $1.75 with a copy of the 

WANTED. Bcfor. 
itnttRtfnehel' nf , 

soniu Koo'd busjiie^v , 
inendatlons from Lifit i». 

South BatTc, Vennout. 



805 Broadway, New York, 



■suiiiplt; gupy of the St. Jos 
IAN. P. RITNER, Pkhsidi 


BOX of card writinE pens. The finest miidc. 
cents. L. M.\DARASZ, 

ILL tuke a few more pupils hi penmanship »y 

■ - " " ' ■ >; nop.istals, 

ail. Particulars for sttimi) ; no pii> 

ommand of the pen 


t written cards. Si-nd SA one-cent stiim 
lie book ciintaininc finest specimens. 1 

rates. Big Piiopits 1 

MADARASZ. P. 0. Box 2118. New Vork Oil 


not etiiialud liy any other p 


P. O. Box 2110, ; 

^END $fi for two subscriptions to "THETREA- 

P. O. Box 2iae, Now York City. 

TWii nificiiiHcini *ri''iinHiis of floiirishhiji and 

I -I".: - .,r>-.,i!i. I,, ..■.tvv.mrname.forJO 

'"" i" '^i' >i'.'u!'\-' "'■' '/'i'...""'ii'',,NewYork(-Ity. 

(J ■■,-,i'li'''m'mu" uVlnV-nii.l';;.'.'l^Vtyley°8o" "ellTs! 
llox ailil. New York City. 

AMAGNinCENT LE'lTEil will he v 
any one who will send 80 one-cent Rt 

Address.°"*l,?SIADARASZ, Penniaii,^ 

Brj-Hnl'» Book keepi 

writing, per ibeet, oontaining forty Mflfoii 
Fifty ibeeta | fifty fiill sets of oopiM ) 

Euond, by e 

p«r Bbeet. qulr*, 

WTiataiM',hot-pTeM, 15x20. .1.15 tl 20 

Blank Brlilol Board Cardi, per 100 25 

.'! ^'''™' ^^ «fpf«" - ^ 00 

WlDBOr & Nenton'i Saperior Sap.' lodift Ink SHok 1 00 
Ornamental Cardi, 12 deaigna, per pack of 25 oardi, 

bymaU 20 

Foorpaoki, 100 cards 60 

SOOoarda S 50 

Spanoerlan No. 1. extra for flourishing 1 25 

Eo^roealnK Pens for lett«ring, per doc 25 

Crow -qolll Pen. very Bub, for drawing, doE 75 

Payson. Dnnton & Soribnere Mannal 1 35 

Sponge Rubber, 2x2 in,, very inperioi 50 

Roll Blaokboards, by express, 

.Skine Clolh, one yard wide, any length per yard, 

J^ No goods sent by m^l DotU cash has been re 

orders, for merchandise or work, npon postal-cards irlU 
reoeive attention. DANIKL T. AMES. 

205 Bboadwat, New Tokk. 

Have you a Copy 

Of our New Engraving, 14 x 20, showiug 
one-half the size of 100 different Cards, En- 
velopes, Wedding Cards, etc. The first copy 
costus *50.00. We will mail it to all that 
wish to buy cards, upon receipt of 10 cents, 
or on heavy card-board for framing, by mail 
in a tube, 30 cents. Sample showing quality 
of stock, with price list included. 


Our new Rubber Pocket Tnk-stnnd, niade to 
admit new Oblique Peii-hi'l(Li-, .'0 mils hy 
mail, 30 Brilliant EiurlM,,,. in A^M,rtcd 
Designs and tints, now n-.'il i.ynii l'i..icsvioti- 
al Penman, 15 cents by mail li,si White 
Ink, 20 cents. Sweet Violet aud Urilliant 
Black, 10 cents. India Ink. 50 cents a stick, 
by mail. Satisfaction guaranteed in all our 

N. E. CARD CO., 

3-tf, 75 Nassau Slrct, N. Y. 



nly In 



Copy of a picture, 
either Smaller or 
Larger, than the 
A Child 12 years of age 


Aliove arc proofs of display cuts prcpiired nX il 
T hese ruts are in rcHcf. iiiitl can be used on any t-oni 
wilhin forty-eigbt bours after receipt of order al loi 

(". () I> Special onlt-rs forall manner of cuts will receive prunini atleiiliou Coll.-". 
alM. diplomas for busmess colleges and other institutions in stock, and special ordere ii 

nmpt and excellent work are unexcelled in Ibe country. 
ti/ CoUf'ie Journal, will be furuisiicd by mail or express 
nislu-.I In suit any IcKulity. V\U^ sciK only for cash or 

I'r'-'M^ji'p JOffT JffPggAL " 

The School Supplement. 


,W^- - »L,._ ... I 

'liiw illuslratioiia are really gems of nn.—T/ioraid 

The finest paper I have examined.— -yupf. Drake, 
It Is finely llliistmted.— .to/ma/ CfiVij 



The liriw of the pnper is 

Dout writ* for free samples. 

Address, EATON, GIBSON & CO., 
Buffalo. N. Y. 






For Sale by all Stationers and Booksellers. 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co., 


26 John Street. New York. 

l«Miy. I 
i. Taylor, MiuiODi 

a journal! ao: 

, 131i W. 33d St,. N. Y. 
. 1884. S. S. Wood— DpBr Sir; PeooBraph came last niKht, and it 
l«r miiloiffht tryiair it. It \» a moataot dMght to nrlt« wilb it. 11 I had 

e JOURNAL one year for |3. 


Why spend «I1 
the other braoches, when you 
ic in half the the time, aud it 

:e done nearly JJOCOO of En- 
rty, I am prepared to do all 
: at prices very low consider- 
rk. Parties havintr pen work 
send copy for estimate and 

learn Engrossing o 
. WILLIS. Pen Artist. TnUy, N. T. 

sLould send for circulars. 

mfc and handsome, 


to Rollolt aabaoriptioDs to th« Pekuan's Art Jouhi 

The lollowiDg is a li«t of the worki whiob we offer 
Penmanihip |a 

Standard Prftotioal Pe n m a mh t p, by the Spenoer 

Aroee'e Copy-iUpi, per iheet of 40 eiercles* 

Family Record, 18iSi2. 1 

Marriage CertifloBte, 1 8x22 1 

Oarfleld Hemorial. 19z'24 

Lord'iPrayer " 

Bounding Stag, 34x33 

PlooriMhed Eagle. 24x32 

Centennial Picture of Piogreai, 22x25 

•^ 38x40 1 

Omameulal aod Flonriibed Carda. 13 deaigna, new, 



I ut H. By using tbo(e aheeta any iperimen or piec 
■, by return of mall on receipt of the price. 

11 MY FAVORITE "PEN tent at »1.S5 

. PATRICK, ArtUt I'enniMii 

1 perfcot andartiatio aiyle 

Shorthand Writing 


Thorough inatruolion in the belt ay. I em ; term, low; 

^ySend Blamp lor apecimen of nriting and oiroolan 

W. M. HULTON, St«DOgrrapher, 


Engliah and Text Letterin, 

oldRr aent for SOoenU each ; 
PKNUAM'e Art Jouhral. 
306 BrokdwAT. New Torh. 

Writing and IVIeasuring Ruler. 

1 innb,. m lenjtb. ol I 

s Pkmuak'b AKT JOU] 


,talos 0(400 graduates, many of them J > 

at»«lari_, _ 

I year. Telegrapher 

ime 10 "ear^'the art," whiinire^dfrnL^ra 
for sienographcrs. Pamphlet and in- 
;e, Wriie or apply lo D. L. Scoti- 
■iDcipal, College of pjionogi " 

v-Vork CHy. 



penholder. The Journal will aend ooe sample 

A. W. Dakin Is one of the finest ponmeti in tbo 
country, his writing is a model of ease and grace 
while Ilia cards are rarely exoelled. He is doing a 
large business In his lino. 

D. T. Axes, Editor Art Joiinial. 

I consider Prof. Dakln one of the finest penmen 
in this country. His card writing Is very beautiful, 
ti. A. Gaskkli,, Editor Pfluman'a Qaztitte. 

. Dakln has got his writing down 

3 your signature on ouo dozen cards in 
as many different styles and comhinattons for only 
25 cents. Almost any Initials wiitten backwards 
without lifting the pen 

Agents Wanted. 

One Hundred more agents are wanted to lake 
ordere for written cards. If yon are a lover of 
handsome cards and fine penmanship and wish to 
make money, send 35 cents for Agent's Book of 
Samples which contains a moat beautiful and com- 
plete variety of all the latest and most popular 
styles with very low rates to nsent.s. Tliisbouk is 
the finest thing of (lie kind ever sent out by any 

Boys you can make money taking orders for writ 
ten civrds. Don't full to send for u Sample Book and 
go to work. 

XjE ss'oisrs 

Given in Plain Penmanship. 

The Exercises 

That the advertisor has practiced fur tiic ptist five 
yesnt, and have gained for hftn wonderful skill with 
the pen, should be in the hands of all who wish to 
become expert pemnen. Sent to any address for 
ascents. A set of Capitals sent with the Exercises 

Steel Pens. 

Card Ink. 

The finest writing Is produced by using Dakin's 
?ard Ink, which Is now tn^ed by nearly all first-class 
lenmeu. Sent by express for $\A0 per quart. lie- 
.'ipe for making the best glossy hhtck Ink for flouinsh- 


Dakin's Compendium 

Of Actual Pen-Work. 

Complete in twelve large copy-allpa, all fresh from 

r offered I 
a good card 

Special Offer. 

. Dakin Is advertising his pen-work in 
If our readers want something flue In 

i ul Hie country. 

lie, EiUlor Penman 

The finest letter, both aa to arrangemont and 
chlrogrnphy, that wo have received this month 

from Pro' -''- -' - ' ' 

Tully. N. ■ 

. Dakln, tlie famous < 

L stands at the head as an 
- VttUigrajiher't <iuiU, Fairmont^ 

.^^.:rP^^^m^. \y- >l^^^^Jm^^^^ 

%fc= — 


couiilry wlio iinagiiie that iIiltc must lie 
wrnic short, easy road to fanic and fortune, 
nud somehow Uicy will be able to stand al 
Uie top of the ladder, without the fatiguing 
experience of the climbing. 

Tliix desire to secure in a few weeks that 
wbieh would properly require several 
months for its aecomplisUment, is the basis 
of the tcm])tation lo the nnscrnpulous in our 
profewioii to bait Ibis cliis-s of persons with 
a short course and big promises. And inns 
much as Ibis is the bonanza tbey have Iwen 
lookin;? for, tbey are ouly too greedy to 
swallow tilt- bait. 

A short course at a price lo correspond, 
nnil lioiHtl information i\& to what can be 
ucconiijli.sliL'd Iiy sucb course, is nil right. 
Hut the promise of a short course at a big 
price, and "keep you longer without ex- 
pense/' is a hoax, from the fact that after 
you have taken that short course you hiive 
all that such institutions Gin give, and con- 
sequently have no desire to remain longer, 
having nothing for which to stay. 

But the question, can such schools do 
more for a student in a short time than an 
honnt institution in Ihe same length of 
timeV Moslempbatitally, no. I have taken 
pains to inform myself as to the pnicticul 
results of such schools, imd speak from 
experience when I say it is decidedly luiicr 
to take a partml course in a thorough insti- 
tution, than a short course in a superticinl 
one. I am personally acquainted with a 
number of young men who left one of these 
short course schools, having become dis- 
gusted with its superficial methods, and 
joiued the College Department of Penman- 
ship, which I was then attending, and the 
testimony, in brief, of Mr. M. C. Smith, 
now Instructor in Prnraansbip, with the 
CoUunbus Business College, Ohio, will 
sei-ve as a sample of all : 

I am froe to say, ia jiistico tn all coiiuernod, 
that I I'uttlly Hindo more improvement la poii- 
niiiTistilp ill two weeks at tlie CoUei^e Ucpiirtnicai 
ol I'fltimanslilp, tUau in seven V(v«3{»' bard work 
ill a i::ur(alu sliort course iuBtitutton. 

In the .ibove te^limonial Mr. Smith gave 
the niiiiii' ..r i!h mLmoI, but I withhold it. 
beaui-M ilii-- ■^\\\^■V• i-- not intended lo cast 
speciiil ]rili ' lii'ii- "11 iiiy one school more 
thau aiiotlui ut lib chi.^,^, but to give such 
information as will enable every youug man 
to choose wisely as to where to procui-e a 
thorough pen-art education. 

And in this connection, the reader will 
please pardon me as I pause to speak of my 

It is a source of no little gnitilicaliou to 
me to be a gniduatc of OBEHLIN COL- 
SHIP. I have beeu for several years tak- 
ing all the leading penmanship periodicat.s 
published, and am not too modest to s:iy 
that I am fairly posted iu mattere pertaining 
to ptrii-art. I have visited at some length, 
and examined with care, the workings of 
some of the leading Schools of Penmanship 
in America, and among them the far-famed 
Spfueerian, and can say frankly, from all 
sources from which I have been able lo 
formation, that the OBEKLIN 
'DEPARTMENT, as a Special 
^itmship, is unequaled in 

las.-! drill, the 


1 boast. I re) 

wbolpsale and retail. Send for 

B. GKIESllAllKlt 



« qualillM. 

• wide, 1 mukiiig Borhoe, per Unsu yard, 11.5 

Black Diamond Slating. 

T7i€ Best Liquid Slatin'j {witJuiut exception) for 
Walls and iVooden ISIackboards. 

Pint, #1.2 


; 0(atoD,$6.5i 

Used and gives Perfect Satisfaction in 

Ci'lambia College (Stfbool of M>ue«) - Ktiw York CUy 

College of Phy«iciftM and Surgeon* - ' 

Uiiiv«nity of tbe City ot New York ■ " " '| 

College of Pharmacy " " " 

C.>lleg6 0f St. PranciaXavier- - - - 

MadUon Umvemily HamUton. N. Y. 

St. John's College Pordliam, N. Y. 

Steveoa Inatitale of Teoboology - ■ ■ Hoboken, N. J. 

Sleveui High School " 

UDlvenity of Miaussippi Oxford, MIm. 

State Normal Sobool Oihkoih.Wia. 

Bingbom Sobwl . . . . Ji . . MebaneviUe, N. 0. 
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In the Public SchooU oj 

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Moulclair, N. J. Waverly, N. Y. 

Bloomfleld, N. J. Hartford, Gt. 

Jersey City, N. J. Naagatnok, Ot, 



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Slenoil Inki, SlMinping and Oanoetintf Inks, 
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. BENNETT, Sfcrttary. 

CLARK & BENNETT, Proprietors. 


Currey's Complete Compendium 

Commercial Colleges. 

Ik tliiit treats the subject 

mcemont Is natural and 
;llly umlotBtood by the 

huy this book Is beosuse tbey c 




Adapted for use with or witboot Text-Book, 
and the only set recommeDdsd to 


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Counting-House- Bookkeeping." 


Favorable arrangementa made with Boslneu Colleges 



119 AND 121 WlUJAM StRBBT, NKW 7oRK. 


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Iff to lOi;. I will send a 

_-; fiTL-. 

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Shading T Square. 

as mpldly 

Unes may be varied, by Inming a Ibumbiorew, from lero 
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ear Sir ■ One 


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past, and 

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tar Sir ■ ' The 

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with wb 

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Sometliiiig Entirely Now! 




J. C. BRYANT, M. D., 

President at the Drviiut & Stmllon Buffnio niiMii««- 
fnllfffi- (t'opyrlKlited ISL^I ; 

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Elementary, 104 pages, Price, » .80 
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.>A Sch««l Tli«r«a;lily Bf|mppfil f»r Oilire Tniniii!.-:- 

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THE isriE^w^ 

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Recognized Authority for 
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The Adept, The Sign-Writer, 

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The aim of this publication is to present a Cyclopedia of Pen-Art in it.s widest 
raoge, most varied adaptation, and most perfect execution. 


THE COMPENDIUM Oomprises Bight Parts 

I.— Elegant Script Forms, particularly adapted for Book-keepers and Com- 
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II.— Devoted to Oflf-liand Plourishing. 

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IV.— Off-hand Spencerian Capitals, mostly new forms. 

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VII.— Varieties of 'Writing, including Spencer Brothers' Abbreviated Hand, 
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H i» ndafitai to t/ic actual ami practical 

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It ,\i ill arn.nhincc with the vmt rational 

ami approved methods of Uath- 


I( han Hiood the test of school-room 
US© wheTe all others haa- fnikil. 

No other scries of ttxt-hmika in so com- 
prehensive in. its scope ciul m 
practical in its results «» KRU- 

Drawing is now regarded as one of the 
essential and organic eleuients of pub- 
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]\'o si/Htim (f Drawing should be adopted 
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D. APPLETON &, CO., Publishers, 

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For the first I 

oonUal reception 11.11.1,- n. 
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Rhuuld try them, and upon receipt of *' 
will mail Vim n \i eross box on trial. 
•\ like riskinir S5c., send 6 

and n \ 

niples. If V 



COMPLETE by mail lorVTTso-I n^u. It Is heavily 

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THE CTJisrisriisrc3-H:-A.]^d: conynx^.^3^"5r, 

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folly wrilfen. 25e, Send 


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[ Pobt-Office I 
6 Second-Cla 

Tracing as a Means oi Acquiring 


It is aareed that the primary object in 
learning to write is to convey tbe ideas of 
ilie writer to the mind of tbe render by 
means of certain universal cbamcters or 
conventional forms called letters. These 
cbaructers are more or less arbitrary and 
unvarying in form, from tbe very nature of 
tbe case, and must retain tbe essential char- 
acteristics agreed upon to be of value for 
tbe primary purpose intended. What these 
essential cbaracteristics consist of is, there- 
fore, of first consequence in learning to 
write. After, and beyond this, a certtnn 
amount of license is tolerated, as an expres- 
sion of tbe taste and individuality of the 
writer, which go to make up bis etyU of 
penmanship. This style may be less or 
more ornate, or eccentric, bounded and lim- 
ited or judged of, on tbe one band by IfoibiUty, 
nnd on the other by the laws of good UihU- tmd 
:irtistic performance. Thus it is Ibat one's 
penmanship becomes, to a certain extent, 
nn index of his character and attainments. 

It is evident, therefore, that tbe writing 
teacher must tirst confine instruction to the 
simple and arbitrary forms of the alphabet ; 
Ibeir combination in words, and arrange- 
ment in lines and sentences. This accom- 
plished, elements of speed and finish may 
be added to the performance, or left to be 
developed by practice and general culture 
nf ihe pupil. 

But the professor of penmanship aims at 
loftier attainment by developing, under his 
critical eye and trained muscles, the manip- 
ulation of tbe pen with the skill of tbe adept 
and performance of an artist, and is, there- 
tore, too often reckless of consequences to 
the fundamental principle involved. 

It is our purpose in ibis article to confine 
attention to tbe initiatory stages and methods 
by which tbe pupil may be inducted into 
the art with certainly of micccps. The cnil 
to be attained by all iih'I1:mlI-. i-^ ilicMnnf, 
viz.. to transfer the wriitm ilmi-Hin- i^ 
the pupil's mind so as tn lir i^'jimiincii li\- 
bis hand at will. There are two nicdivims 
through which this may be accomplished 
directly, viz., iha sight nnd the touch, each 
aided by tbe hearing. The eye has been the 
most commonly depended upon for this 
purpose, and the faculty of imitation through 
the medium of the eye relied upon almost 
wholly to accomplish tbe object. With 
most children, this faculty is able to do tbe 
work, it accompanied by appropriate direc- 
tion and illustration. But there arc many 
children, and nearly all older persons, whose 
imitative powers are dull, and who learn by 
doing rather than seeing or hearing, and for 
these, especially, the guiding of the hand 
through the form, is a surer method of con- 
veying the idea to tlfe mind permanently. But 
with all clas.-ies, doiug and seeing combined, 
iire the mo>it conclusive means of establish- 
ing correct itliiw Now, it is a physiological 
law that nmscks are tniincd and strengthened 
by use, and that trained muscles predomin- 
ate over untrained muscles in execution. It 
is also asserted by physiologists that a dif- 
ferent muscle is employed for every diUcr- 
L'Dt motion. This being established, it is 
obvious that, if only the right muscles wbicli 
are employed in protlucing the correct forms 
of letters could be trained, these would soon 
become strongest and predominate in the 

work of writing, thus forming a habit 
predisposition for correct writing which is 
the end sought. 

This can be accomplished hy tracing upon 
.he forms directly which, at the same lime, 
aflTords the use of pen and ink, and culti- 
vates the touch as effectively as in imitative 

In the act of imitation, it is asserted by 
mental philosophers that tbe muscles of the 
eye really trace or nm over the outline of 
the form viewed, producing a corresponding 
figure reduced in size upon the brain. It is 
from this pantographic picture that the form 
is reproduced through the medium of tbe 
band upon tbe paper by exercise of the will. 
It wilUhus be seen that on the accuracy of 
tbe eye, tracing or imitation depends, first, 
tipon tbe clearness, permanence and accuracy 
of the brain-picture, and second is dependent 
upon the power and training or control of tbe 
will over the right muscles of tbe arm and 
hand for its faithful reproduction — two con- 
tingencies which largely explain the phe- 
nomena observed in learners that the lesson 
imitated to day cannot be recalled to-mor- 
row, and tbe other notorious fact that chil- 
dren's school copybooks and other written 
exercises compare so unfavorably. It may 
also explain why our ideas of writing are 
always so far ahead of our ability to execute 
them upon paper. 

Thus, by tbe imitative process, the work 
proceeds hy a series of approximations and 
elimination of all the imperfect forms and im- 
proper movements first, which, of course, 
strengthens tbe muscles producing them . and 
creates a tendency to their habitual reproduc- 
tion, unless held in abeyance by increased 
mll-ptnB&r until the correct fonn and habit is 
finally produced by the proper muscles and 
movement. Is it, then, strange that so few 
ever reach that happy condition ? 

By the tracing method, the pen is placed 
directly upon the form to be transferred, 
and (if held properiy) tbe right muscWs are 
at once brougbl into play and, as the pen 
follows ihf form in its minutest variaiions, 
II is iniiistnml correctly and fully to the 
)>r!iiii thp.ii-ii the medium of tbe band m 
ir.ll'ixth- ' g< ; the one corroborating the 
other, and no lime or efEort is lost in secur- 
ing the highest result, since the hand train- 
ing keeps even pace with the mritin^ idea, 
whicd is the only true measure of attain- 
Next as to Tracing Methods. These may 
be various and suited to tbe stage of ad- 
vancement of tbe pupil. J^rst. ideas may 
he imparted by tracing in thti air forms first 

Tbe pupil is to point his fore-finger at tbe 
copy and follow its form throughout as if 
imaginary blackboard. 

^ J. ^ 

Second, In grooivs cut in the surface of a 
block of wood or slate frame, or stamped 
in metal, as represented in the foregoing 
cuts, and which should be fastened at the 
proper distance upon tbe writing desk. In 
drilling, use a lead pencil and lift it occasion- 
ally from the groove, moving back in tbe air 
to starting point, as indicated by tbe line in 
the exercises. Practice tbe various exercises 
preparatory to each writing exercise upon 
paper until the various run^ can be made 
with tbe eyes shut. In classes, tbe teacher 
should regulate the movements by counting 
at various rates of speed, but always uni- 
form. Tbe size of the characters should be 
reduced as proficiency is gained, until com- 
mon band is achieved on paper. 

Third, With a dry pen upon the copy lines 
of the book until their form is familiarized 
and duly memorized. This also improves 
the touch. 

Fourth, With ink and pen upon the shad- 
owed forms of letters and writing, in dotted 
outlines (which best represent the true gra- 
phic idea as a shadow of an original writing) 
and when traced upon with ink of identical 
color, nearest resembles an original writing. 

It is tbe sole reliance for acquiring a 
knowledge of tbe wonderful Chinese lan- 
guage, the characters being traced by learn- 
ers through and upon transparent paper. 

As a medium for establishing tbe princi- 
ples and practice of correct pen holding 
alone, it is most desirable, and as the several 
initial steps of teaching penmanship become 
recognized and each receives due and or- 
deriy attention, the progress of pupils will 
he correspondingly great and certain. 




writlfu ul>(in iIk> liliifkljoiird by the k'luhcr 

These various tracing excreises should be 
begun in the Primary grades nt the earliest 
stages, and daily or hourly drill upon them 
should be required and directed until the 
cardinal movements and forms become thor- 
oughly habituated by every pupil. Primary 
slate frames should contliin the characters, 
grooved for tracing, and each desk should 
be provided with brass or other grooved 
plates, lixed at a suitable distance for 
establishing the proper position of the 
arm on the desk when tracing. The 
scribbling propensities so common with 
children, and Which might be termed wM 
xarilmg, should be directed into these chan- 
nels nnd trained toward penmanship 

The era of tracing in learning penmanship 
has but just begun, but every experienced 
teacher and all current authors now recognize 
its educational value asa medium forproper 
primary instruction. As fast as suitable 
exerei-ses and devices are developed to render 
it practirnblc in the hands of the average 
teacher, it will become popular. 

Report of the Proceedings of the 
Seventh Annual Convention 
of the Business Educat- 
ors and Penmen of 
The Convention convened in the spacious 
and commodious hall of the Jacksonville 
(111 ) Business College, on July 9 and con- 
tinued its sessions until the afternoon of the 
15th. The attendance was above average, 
and included many of the pioneers and 
recognized leaders of business education in 

' The sessions were spirited and of unusual 
interest throughout, and it was the universal 
remark that it was one of the most eftlcient 
and successful Conventions yet held. 

In its report on the tirst session of the 
meeting tlie JmkmixaXle Daily Jmrnal said: 
We have seldom witnessedTi gathering 
of finer looking men than these representa- 
tives of the leading busmess colleges of the 
country, and the manner in which they 
went to work showed nt once that theu- trip 
was no mere junketing affair, but a journey 
uiiil. ii ik> II f'T "I'lk rather than pleasure. 
I'n.l l;iM«N u^i- everywhere at once, mak- 
i,,,. Ills Ml -I- at home and getting 
Uiiii"^ liini -liipi- for Ihc work of the fore- 
noon Tlic whole Business Colle"e build- 
ing presented an animated spectacle, and it 
wSi pleasant to note the earnest, intelligent 
look upon the countenances of the ladies 
and gentlemen present." 


The officers were: President. Henrj' C. 
Spencer, Washington, D. C. ; First Vice- 
President. L. F. Gardner, Poughkeepsie, N. 
y • Additional Vice-President, Mrs. Sara 
A Spencer, Washington, D. C. ; Additional 
Vice-President, H- Gallagher, Hamilton, 
Canada: Secretary and Treasurer, A. J. 
Rider, Trenton, N. J. 

Executive Committee.— G. W. Brown, 
Jacksonville, 111. ; A. H. Hinman, Worces- 
ter, Mass. : Thos. M. Pierce, of Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Committee of the Penman's Section.— 
A 11. Hinman, Worcester. Mass. ; E. K. 
Isaacs, Valparaiso, Ind, ; H. B. Chicken, 
Jacksonville, 111. 

All were present except Messrs. Pierce 
and Isaacs. 

The following is a complete list of all the 
members in attendance and of those who 
remitted their annual dues ; 

. .Taeksunvlllc, 1 

Dan. llrown, 

('. E. Baker. - ^ 

E. L. Dennett, Walklna Glen, N. v. 

II. B. Chicken, SprilmllelJ. III. 

II. C. dark. Erie, Pa. 

Miss M B. I'svaiiBilgti, Muskegoni Mich. 

cliarlea E. Cndy. New York, 
r. c. Curtlw. MlmiBftp<ill«. Mini] 
(.'iiniell and Ciirliarl. Albaiif, N. ' 
W. M. Carpenter. St I^uls, Ho. 
c. C. Cocliran, SIuux City. lown 
W. 11. Duff, I'ltwburB. Pa. 
.r. c. Duncjtn, DuTenporl, lowii. 
w. K. Drake. Jersey City, N. J. 
a. W. Elliott, Burlington, Iowa. 
II. T. BnKellioni, Iletenn, 


A, M. H.iolnmn. Cliicago. III. 
A. R Haskln, Pi)Uglikcoi>sIe. N. V. 
Tlios. E. Hill. Clilcago. III. 
Ti{n. Thos. E. Hill, CliIcaKO, III. 

r X njiTiMlu.ii,;iimpo;i9. Iml. 

Mrs. S. S. Packard, New York. 
l*". P. Preuitt, Port Worth. Texas. 
V. K. Ilofiera, KocliestBr, N. Y. 
A. J. lUder. Trenton, N. J. 
Mrs. A. J. Itider. Trenton. N. J. 
('- W. Rohbiii?;, SLdali.1. Mo. 
S. A. Kendall, St, Louis, Mo. 
Homer Kiis-ii-ll. .Inliet, 111. 
(; K. Itatlibtui. iimalifi, Neb. 




r. Wasbiiicton. D. C. 



Sara A 

SpeiK-er, Wasliington, 


r. Milwaukee, Wis. 



Stoddard. Hoc-kford. III. 




r, Centralis, III. 



Spencer, New Turk. 


Scbiieider. Wilkesbarre, Pa 




wayzr:, Muskegon. MicI 
Dloomfield. Iowa. 
Dei Norte. Cul. 




. Baltlroore, Md. 
Jacksonville. III. 
. St. Cliarles, Mn. 




Providence, R, I. 




Lexlngtou, Ky. 



Lexington, Ky. 




Cincinnati, 0. 




r. CkvelanrI, 0, 

J. 1'- Wilson. Cl.l.ugo. 111. 

E. \V. Young, Mlcliifrau City. Ind. 


M, M. Bartholomew. 

Dr. J. M. Sturtevaut, Jacksonville, 111. 

I'rtif. J. B. Turner, Jacksonville, III. 
Tliere were some forty or fifty in atteod- 
unte from different parts of the country 
wbo did not become members. 

The Conventiozi was called to order on 
Thursday, July 9, by the President, when 
prayer wns offered by the Rev. II. E. Butler. 

On motion of A. H. Hinuian, Mcssre. L 
L. Willinms, W. E. McCord, C. Bayh-ss. C. 
H. Pierce and A. J. Rider were appointed a 
committee on membership. All former 
members present, not in arrears for dues, 
being considered as working members. 

The Secretary and Treasurer then read 
his report, which was approved. 

After a recess of fifteen minutes, R. E. 
Gallagher, of Hamilton. Ontario, proposed 
that the Coiistiiuiinn of tlie Association be 
so amended a.s to admit to its membership 
representiitives from Canada. The Chair 
considered that the Constitution was iuiend- 
ed lo do so, but as it was not affirmatively 
so expressed, an amendment was subsequent- 
ly adopted to that elTect. 

G. W. Brown, as chairman, reported on 
behalf of the E.xeculive Committee, respect- 
ing the character and extent of iu labors, 
etc., acknowledging special indebtedness of 
the committee to the omeei« and several 
mrmljers of the Association, also to Messrs. 

■vVirci^^NKllsoNV.' i'KoOl'V. Cbarltwii fi 

T). T. Ames, Editor of the Penman's Art 
JouKNAt,; L. L. Williams, of the Rochester 
CammtreuU Jtecifir. and WortUington & 
Palracr, of the Wmt^rn Pinman. 

Prof. Ilinman reported for the Penman's 

After some di.tcussion rcspectiuK the pro- 
gramme and future work of the session, the 
morning session closed. 

is held in the Chapel of the Jacksonville 
Female Academy. After some announce- 
ments respecting tlie order of the work of 
the Convention, an address of welcome 
was delivered by Mr. M. P. Ayers, a banker 
and prominent citizen of Jacksonville. He 
said, in substance, as follows : 

"Business educators of America, I bid 
you welcome. I was about to say iu the 
name of the mayor and city council as well 
as the citizens of the city, but I look in vain 
for them, as the rain has detained many of 
them, wliile the mayor probably was afraid 
of being called on to make a speech. My 
address is not prepared, as I was assured 
that the occasion would afford sufficient in- 
spiration by meeting the members of this 
association. We welcome you to this, one 
of the oldest cities of the State, and one of 
no mean culture. We have had many con- 
ventions here in the past, and on such oc- 
casions a person was called upon to present 
an address of welcome, and when we tele- 
phoned to the Business College for the pur- 
pose of speaking to the principal, they 
replied : ' He is down about the furnaces 
practicing his speech,' which he reports two 
weeks later as entirely impromptu. 

"If I had been called upon to address 
this meeting a few years since, I should 
have felt that it did not amount to much, 
as business colleges then had a very poor 
standing ; but I congratulate you, gentle- 
men, on the elevated standard of your insti- 
tutions. The time was when a young man 
thought he could go to a business college for 
a few weeks and come out a first-class busi- 
ness man ; but now, all is changed, and he 
who goes to one of these schools is told to 
work bard for months, and it is his. own 
fault if he doesn't come out much improved. 
' ' Methods of business have much changed 
since the war, and enterprises are more 
colossal. Twenty years ago the methods of 
keeping books were very different. A 
gentleman told me recently of two young 
men in his fatbei-'s store, one a high school 
graduate, who were unable to comprehend 
how to manage the cash account, though it 
had been most fully and cleju'ly illustrated. 
I have two customers who cannot read or 
write, and yet are among the most success- 
ful business men in the county, and I know 
some classically educated men who cannot 
tell in an hour how far a train will travel in 
a minute which goes fifty-four miles an 
hour. Not one lady in ninety-nine can 
solve an example in interest when notes of 
partial payments are involved. For many 
reasons I think business colleges are useful 
as they teach the theory of practice. 

" We are glad to see you here, and I shall 
not boast of om- eity, though I may safely 
say that there is not another place of its 
si/e having so many teachers. And I may 
also add that there is no other which has so 
many churches. In fact, we have too many 
of them, and consefjuenlly too many preach- 
ers. We have too many churches and too 
little piety. Too many places at which to 
get our religion, which is not sufficiently 
boiled down. However, we shall do the 
best we can, and hope to accomplish much. 
I feel mi]cb embarrassed by the surround- 
ings. At times I can be glowing and elo- 
quent, but such a time has not happened in 
forty years. We hope your stay in our city 
will be pleasant. We trust that you will be 
pleased with our citizens, and that Provi- 
dence will send the weather needed to make 
your stfly agreeable." 

L. F. Gardner, of Poughkeepsie. N. Y.. 
responded : 

" We are more than pleased to hear a 
practical business man speak so kindly of 
our work. Like the children of Israel, we 
have wandered far from home, led by the 
pillar of cloud and fire. We were promised 
a warm reception, and certainly had it this 
morning. We are an earuest set of men and 
women, bent on training the youth of the 
country. Every young man and woman 

should so learn their duty in life, that they 
nuiy best be able to use the faculties the 
Maker has given them. 

" We are promised that in our Father's 
house are many mansions, and may we not 
regard this as one of them in which we can 
feel at home ? We are pleased with our 
hearty welcome, and return a cordial invi- 
tation to all the citizens to be present at our 
meetings and get what good they can from 
our deliberations." 

Rev. A. N. Gilbert was then pleasantly 
introduced as pastor of a church of the same 
denomination to which the late President 
Garfield belonged. He said : 

"It is a notorious fact that a preacher 
knows nothing of business. When he fails 
to get enough to pay his debts the blame is 
charged, not upon the nonpaying congrega- 
tion, hut upon the minister who knows 
nothing about business. Considering this, 
I was surprised at being called on to address 
an assemblage of men and women who know 
all about business. However. I have had 
some knowledge of practical life, having 
kept books in Philadelphia, though since 
that time I have imitated our Methodist 
brethren by going on toward perfection. I 
am in hearty sympathy with the business 
colleges, aud think that a course in one of 
them should be made an appendix to every 
course of education, and I sincerely wish 
that every minister in the laud might take 
such a course, which at times might be of 
inestimable value. It may not be often 
needed, but like the revolver in Texas— 
when wanted, it is wanted very badly. I 
preach the necessity of living a heavenly 
life on earth, if we are to do so hereafter, 
and so, if we are to be successful business 
men, we should have a practical education 
in youth." 

President Spencer said : "While a stu- 
dent at Hiram College (Ohio), I was a mem- 
ber of the Discipleof Christian Church, and 
heard James A. Garfield, who was then a 
minister of that denomination, preach many 
fine discourses. We have in Washington 
the Garfield Memorial Church, and my 
eldest son Hkes to attend it. Meeting the 
pastor, Rev. Frederick Power one day, I, 
said ; * My son prefers attending your 
church, why is this ? ' He replied : ' I sup- 
pose the iniquities of the father are being 
visited upon the son.' " 

The Rev. Dr. Easter being called for, 
said : " It is hardly fair after what has been 
said about the surplus of preachers to ask 
them to do the talking, and if their remarks 
are boiled down there should be no com- 
plaint. Like my predecessor, I, too. have 
had some practical experience in life, having 
spent several years as a mining engineer. I 
see upon your programme a time devoted to 
physical culture ; but why none to mora! 
culture ? We indeed have too many churches 
in our city, and too little consecration, 
and if wc had more business in our religious 
affairs it would he better. But we need to 
teach morality in business at present. 

" Book-keeping is important, but it is 
well nut to learn to keep other people's 
books. Business Col leges should teach 
morality, and they can do it without teach- 
ing theology. The points on which Chris- 
tians agree are far more numerous than the 
minor matters which divide the many sects 
in our land. Teachers in business colleges 
have a great opportunity to make a lasting 
impression for good upon those who come 
under their care. No man can live to him- 
self, and all arc responsible for their influ- 
ence. In the years to come may we not 
hope that mondity will have a place in the 
curriculum of our business colleges ? Moral- 
ity cannot be divorced from the fear of God, 
for to love him with the whole heart is the 
first commandment." 

President Spencer called the attention of 
the last speaker to the fact that business 
ethics had a place on the programme. 

The Rev. Dr. Morey was then introduced. 
He said : 

"I suppose you are aware that you are 
out west where theydo things up in ahurry. 
Two little giris, one from Boston and one 
from Chicago, were talkingwhen thefonner 
said, 'My mother has known her fore- 
fathers for two hundred years.' 'Pshaw.' 
wdd the other, ' My mother has known four 
hvisbands within two years.' That is the 
way we do thinga out here. 
" Wc opfcially need more Ihoroiighucss 

in our country ; we have too many inefficient 
business men in our land, and they sbmdtl 
toned up. A man can serve God just as 
well at his desk as the minister in the pul- 
pit. The first opinion I had of a husines.'* 
college was doubtful, and I thought they 
didn't amount to much, but my first ac- 
quaintance changed my opinion, though I 
thought the one I saw in Cincinnati was 
peculiar to Ohio, and that Prof. Nelson was 
an unusual man, hut I see he is not alone in 
his methods, and that others are doing good 
work also. I shall watch for your defcrls, 
and tell you of them when they appear." 

Prof. Storrs, of Illinois College, said : 
"The man who should have made this 
speech isn't here. :*.s you will think before 
I have done. The Jacksonville Business 
College owes its existence to Illinois Col- 
lege, which gave it an honorable birth, 
and when the bantling grew too large and 
there was danger of the tail wagging the 
dog, the trustees saw fit to amputate it. 
I wish, too, that several weeks might be 
devoted by every student to a business 
education. I think the business colleges 
have stolen a name which means something 
more than what is accomplished within 
their walls. To-day the words college edu- 
cated do not mean what they should. We 
want to work together, hand in hand, for 
literary colleges are much indebted to busi- 
ness men, who have done liberally by them. 
If any of you are interested in our work, 
we shall be happy to meet you at our college 
on the hill and show you what we are doing, 
and one of the pleasantcst sights in the city." 

The assembly was then favored with a 
piano duet by Mrs. Annie Smith aud Miss 
Louise AUcott, which was exquisitely reud- 
ered and much enjoyed. 

After which was delivered the 

by the President of the Association, Prof. 
Henry C. Spencer, Principal of the Spen- 
cerian Business College, Washington, D.C., 
which was as follows : 

■We have been intro- 
duced by Principal G. W. Brown, of the Jackson- 
ville Business College, and have received a cordial 
welcome by Mr. P. Ayi-es, a leading banker and 
distinguished man.spokenonbebalf of the'oitii^ciis 
of tills clelit'btful prairie city, where culture, le- 
(iiifiii.jii jinil li'^Liiiiii;: are fostered In ediicatiuniil 
instil 111 I,, II- III .( ;iu lustly the pride of the people 

li.rn \.Mii \ 111. II- -..liools of busincBs in tlic 
filii- .■! III.' Mi-i, North, West and South, you 
hiiM I ..111. (.. |.r. -.Ill Dif results of your experi- 
fiii ' - iM. TiL-it - uiid reflections during the 

■ the 

are priucipals and teachers of business colleger, 
special teachers of penmanship, shorthand and 
typewriting, authors of text-books on book-keep- 
ing, commercial law, business arithmetic, practical 
and oruameutal penmanship, English languagi-. 
business cori'espoudencc and other valuable work". 
The papers and discussfocs of such nti assembly 
cannot fall to be instructive, interesting aud im- 

We go baok but two generations to find the 
pioneers of American business colleges. What a 
wonderful educatioual development in so short a 

Accoi'diug to latest statistics obtained from tlie ' 
United States Bureau of Educatlou, there are eui 
business schools in our land, having an annual 

tbeolugy, and eight aud one-third times as nmuy 
students. Considering tliu comparative youthful- 
ness of business colleges, these facto may seem 

The gixiwth of business colleges, however, a-s t{> 
thenumherof iustltulioiis. annual altendaticc of 
studi'uts. number nf leathers eniiiloycd, c'tr . wo 

been attained h.i- \\ < 'u 1 1 j.i. m-u of the puo- 

pie. and ha;; Ij. . n i|.._ i.jl ..m-c uf the rapid 
growth and subMtanllal iin.sp.-nty of such Sasll- 

As the doctor requires the school of medicine, 
the lawyer the hiw school, the oiergymen the 

of the 

I do the busIiK 

fiiumflrallon iiro Inoliidp'l 
nori4>r nnd otooks. hook-k- 

xiiri-m, iiisuranco ami mil 
II th(»o bruiiolies of biulu 
vonu-ii : Blil|>pers and r 

the eduoHtlon thiir is uUuihwl in llio liiisines.s 
A wSdo-awake clergyman vlHltlnjt a popular busi- 

iicssriillc^ife iiiciitly, hjiiiI : "' If iry eugaRcmoiltS 

W-iiil'i |«'i hi:i I u I < "UK' in :iii<I li-iU'll tllO tMllg^ 

ly (>. liei'iiiiie tlie li-Kiil Jidvlsur of the business 
n (if New York City, took a thoroujib oourse in 
biisbu'SH college. I'Vinners. iiiecliunit's, b<jti;l 
siHTs, and host* of people wo uannot here 
ilerUtke U< mention, need busbic^^s truining. It 
ILs I licm to maiiaKe their affairs more intelli- 

rimtly I 

The valno or this tmtnlni! is comlu^ to be ac- 
(iiowled^d in all business ufTatrs, from the treas- 
iry of the United States, Uie largest financial 
iiHtitntloninthewurld, down to tbo humblest of 
nisinf ss enterprlseB, 

■■■■■-■■ ■ ■ ' 1 by leaders 

,ei J ..Iliri w.rtliy wmker in the field, 
nis. all nsefitl Inbor of hand or brain 
1 and pnrtli'iilar bcneticence. These 

ment of actual business in the school-roora— a 
irrand and dlstlngulshinB feature of the businew 
colb-ire-ls A subject calHne for clear presentation 
and rl'iso consideration. There should be a sharp 
]v .hiiwn between tboroach. oxnot. practical 

.. . Mbatdevclop the business facnllica of the 

I !. Ill inoperly. and those lax. disorderly, goas- 
1 II iilr;Lv<i arrangements that are demorallKing 
ill ilit'ir i-tfectanpon the niind^nd habits of tbo atu- 

Cominercial law. political economy, civil covern- 
ment. and ethics; ehort-lmnd and tyiw-wTiling, 
will be treated by competent men and women. 
Otherinteresting topicsareaUo to be handled by 
able members of this association, to whom they 
have severally been assigned. 

A formidable work is before us. Let us enter 
upon it as lovers of the good and the tnio in their 
relations to our professional labors. 

As teachers wc have to deal with the most prec- 
1.H18 intensis nf the liunian race. What conatl- 

iinisoiilar system and the skin 
e the human body. Yet we 

nameti'^^ • ■-' m. . wni ■.-.,! i '.i:i ih. , ..■ n-.^. 

within, IiH.ks out u|nni tliL- w^flil llinniu'li \hu nid- 
terlaleye, hears Its busy bum through the material 
rjiialities of things through tlie 

iMly h 

erroneous Impression prevalent among the 
s of tlie people, it Is unite important to uor- 
Wc often hear tt siiid. "I don't want to 
k-keeplng, because I don't expect to be 

the rational sta«o of life wilboul obtaining some 
Idea of the power secured by money. How Imptii^ 
tant that the true Idea should be inoulcntod. The 
mere possession of money should not be In itself an 
end, but only a means to important ends: these 
ends, iu general, are expressed by the word "#». 
Money was made not to command 

weailb obey, 

But all inir lawful piensures to fulfill. 

The horse does with the horseman run away. 

The American business college is the educational 
exponent of this practical age. The people of our 
country have given It a mighty Impulse forward, 
because of its utilitarian mission. It has bet^n 
demonstrated that the practical nnd useful in bus- 
iness courses of study serve to uronse the youthful 
Ambition, discipline the mental and moral facul- 
ties, and develop efficient, enterprising reliable 

To uaa's business educators tliis fact is full of en- 
couragement : Our students and gra<IuateN, the 
children of our aflection and care, are on every 
hand recruiting the ranks of the nations' worthy 
and productive business men. 

With James A. GarQeld, we can say to young 
men : " Itmaybe stated as a general rule, that if 
■we compel ourselves to learn what we ought to 
know, and use It when learned, our discipline will 
takecare of Itself." 

Youni.'Keiili.-in-ii. learn to cultivate a wise roll- 

' ii. - tn cripples, but 

Iii;li-is, knowing that 

[..iiiiii'i' ii'A.<i- i>i V ' i>r;iiii and muscle, and 

ThiiT iiiliur IS [ill- ouly liuiiiKU symbol of omnlpo- 

" The annual atldrcss was delivered in a 
style peculiarly pleasing and dignified, and 
elicited from all present the closest attcn- 

vigoroiis thinkers upon themes compara- 
tively new to the world. These addressi-s 
were both printed in full hy one of the city 
papers and were widely read. 


The first woman whose name appears 
upon the pages of recorded history seems to 
have been held to slriet and awful legal, 
moral and :iriMiiiil:iliility ; iind :ill 
the way down iln' ■[■:• - \]\r lii-i"vv }):\< iieen 
repeated. FiiM^. .lUi-u'in ^ , i i'' "' -\iiii>"l. 

the rhiiptCT Im:iv 'h' Iml .i- ;in i liil'li 111 ilf 

11 _ , 111 ilieir music and veiled 

till n III.-, v.\uU 111. tirst man and woman 
waUuil side by side nut of the gates of the 
first Pnradise. She did not protest V If she 
had so desired, to whom should she go V 
Had not her natural protector appeared 
against her at the highest judicial tribunal, 
trying to get her doubly punished for the 
mutual sin ? 

This unheroic attitude of the primitive 
man has stood as a model of manly leader- 
ship and dignity among all the people of aU 

lands. Recently a brifliant, scoffing, skep 
tic of the nineteenth century, a son of III 
nois, discovered that this first ffcutkniim r 

the earth ought to ]iii\i > -i iMi-li"! for th 

lie should have saiil i I'l'ii 

taken from his side 1 1 in ■ : > 'lie 

ished, "Poor thiiij;. y^u don i kui>\\ iin 
better; how should you/ A wunuiu cm 

■i jiluAo-cniimiuil from, pcn-nnd Uik ropi/, cxfciitul at the uffii-c of the Penman's Aiit Joiunal, and k f/ici 
specimen of pen lettering. 

we must study and understand, as to his will or 
affections which lie at the foundation of his mo- 
tives of life, as to his mental structure, which Is 
the field wherein his thoughts and pUins are ma- 
tured, to be wi'ougbt out in the world through his 

liook-keepintf is made a prominent branch in a 
luisliicsH course, beouusc it presents the trunsac- 
lions, forms and usages of the world of business, 
I lie best methods of recording thoin and showing 
oorroct gnanclal results. It Is not expected or de- 
sired that tlic graduate of these schools will be- 
L'oinc pr><fef«ionai book-keepers; ouly those who 
may choose tliat from among the many business 
occupations which are open to them. 

While discussing methods of book-keeping, due 

>id writing almost universal. Ne 
of ourcountry have there been si: 
jicbei-s atid iiiie|.u in \vritinsa 

tivity fullows. and life becun 
When clear, fixed purposes h 
the Individual will think and i 
plish tliose purposes. 

"In idle V 

>ols supinely stay ; 

Be there a will, and wisdom finds a way." 
Parents too often urge the admission of their 
sons and daughters to business collenes before thoy 
are of proper age, or qualified to receive the ad- 
vantage of such schools. On the other liaiul when 
the price of a scholarship is tendered U Is a temp- 
tation to the business college manager to receive 
both the fee and the pupil, even though bis judg- 
ment would decline tbem. No amount of money 
can compensate for failure In the training of a slu- 

Tbe life and permanence of a business college de- 
pends upon the conscientious thoroughness with 
which it doi 

I'i of any other 

brunch of traiiibm oui ^cllouU arc the acknowl 
«Mlged leaders. The Hnglisb language and corre, 
»pt>ndence. we are glad lo obson'e, are reccirin^ 
iin incruaslng share of attention iu these discus 

"At what age sliould pupils t 
>usiness course, nnd what shiml 
> iry education V are, 1 
i^cuased during these ses 
rit tbnl nn applicant Is not tit 
...)l.i._'.. tnhli advantage. It 

n glad t 

lote. things .,f 
Instruetion in 

tion," says the College Hecord of Jackson- 

After which a somewhat extended dis- 
cussion occurred relative to the publication 
of a verbatim report of the proceedings in a 
pamphlet form, which resulted in the ac- 
ceptance of a proposition by the editor of 
the Penman's Aut Jouiimal, viz. : That 
a condensed report of the regular pvoceetl- 
ings be published in the Journai,, and that 
the Slime be subsequently made up in 
pamphlet foi-m, together with papers read 
and such addresses as may be reported in 
full, and as many copies printed as may be 
desired. The meeting then adjourned. 


was held iu Conservatoiy Hall, where a 
large audience listened to able and valuable 
papers, by S. S. Packard, on " The Bnsi- 
NES8 College of Amehica," and Mrs. Sara 
A. Spencer, on "BusraESs Training fob 

Mr. Packard presented an exhaustive 
history of business colleges in America, 
from the first one, inaugurated about forty- 
five years ago by R. M. Bartlett, in Cincin- 
nati, O., to the present time. The address 
was listened to throughout with marked 
attention, an<l will constitute a valuable 
contribution to business college history and 

Mrs. Spencer's address was an exceeding- 
ly able plea in behalf of business education 
for women, and their reception into suitable 
places of business. 

Rarely have two such addresses been de- 
livered upon any occasion. The freshness 
of thought, vigor and clearness of expres- 
sion in both were absolutely refreshing, yet 
nothing in the one suggested the other. 
The minds of the audience were not haunted 
with the suspicion that some lime or some 
where they had read or heard something very 
similar. They were the fresh thoughts of 

not understand the law, and should not, in 
my human judgment, sufEer penalty. I 
will throw myself before the owner of the 
garden and die for you ; failing in that, we 
will suffer and die together." 

He might as well have struck this mag- 
nificent attitude. He W'\t]'\ li;ive appeared 
to better advantage in tin nni il- i.f lii^iory, 
sincesuffer togetlui' th.^ nm-,!, pnisli to- 
gether they will, in ;iii> lii-r. mill Liiiitual 

iiiiL'lit li;i\r -.wirieiicd the pangs of death 

uiiiler^Uiml {<••> well, that in every crisis of 
her destiny, she must stand or fall in her 
own strength or weakness. Down into the 
valley of the shadow of death she must go 
alone, for every human soul that is born. 
At the bar of judgment she must stand to 


> that 

shelter ; ignorance does 
not atone : protection docs not protect. 

Nothing less Than complete, harmonious 
development of every power of body and 

through the chances and changes of ( 
the comparatively uneventful life of the 
ordinary wife and mother. 

Among races and nations where men have 
a religious creed and conviction that women 
have no souls, and never can enter into 
eternal life, they find it so inconvenient, 
vexatious, and perilous to live with fools, 
that they shut women up, cover their faces, 
cripple them for lifi', i i ii niuuli itid tor- 
ture them, tie them h^ ■>■ i ■! ihrow 

them into the sea. ->' ■■ . i Iiirth 

and resort to eveiv .n-i^ m^i. i.:iri.iiric 
device to rid the earlli vt ihis lair defect 
of nature." 

A bright lady whom I know declares that 
she can only account for the fact that 
enough women have been preserved to peo- 
ple the earth, by a consideration of the gen- 
eral persistency of life in the lower types. 

hereditaiy tendency derived from 
Adam. Consider the tremendous amount 
of native energy and psychic force bottled 
up within a full-bloo"ded. untamed, self- 
willed, ignorant woman ; lightning, and 
dynamite, uitro-glycerine and earthquakes 

linng repo-w ond pcice m toinpnni n I 
They have Ibeir hmilition'j biil iIil Ih umi 
less universe and cttnnlyaie hers (I nm 
talking of women now If mj "ul jitt pei 
milled me to spi ik of men I mi^Iit use 
stronger langunce) 

By niture ind I trust bv grace I nm 
Rltogelber rebellious conctrning the general 
subjection of \s m u 1 it I m fico to 
admit that -nil I " 

policy and pu 

listen llv in si 

It IS j I idd Uiiy could uot 

ace i 1 inteHi^ence aud 

boil 1 I i atible as light aud 

In this age of tbc \\orld in Uus free re 
public and especially in ibis b1 i cf lb 
we*.t the enlijbtened pro^itssuL sutt of 

nit\ I 

IbeirovNu lives bbould bo tittly piovidcd 
for and earnetitly urged upon tbe women of 
tlieir households 

Yet tbe kiudlv earnest manner m wbicb 
this topic bus been submitted to uie foi dib 
cussion before Ibis convention gi\LS mr Iht 
impression that my butbrm ot the b isincss 
colleges of tbe laud ba\e found Ibt »(i (K)U 
(jOO of people of tbis country 
apathetic and blind on this quest M 

own impulse is to answer Bumi 
ing for women cei laiuly "ft 1 \ 
and s( p flu re 

1 idin 


1 Men \\ill not maiij business women 
1 h a objection ou^bt to be enough If it 
weie tttll founded «eiiii^ht close the di& 
cushion andtiikt toij,nomimouslligh( let 
us see how it would It k rn the (therside 
Women w ill uot m iri j business 

Ibe • 

i of life 

Im I IhU objcetiou aud 

makii , I L 11 el w U and fii\olous aud 
woithlcSbCuou^,k lu he chosen as life com 

There aie some men still in this country 
whose highest ideal of w i nnli 1 ib be!| 
less dependence Unf ii I 

of the « Olid for a loii 
■niU find plentj of w 
wives and when then 
women theiewiU be n t r t nil 
men asking for them MeiuLiie ihne aie 
quite enough ckarheidtd lii eheutcd 
far-seem^' men who do uudei tinl lb it tbe 
humm rif< n U intelh, ut ^\L\] ti iined 
self] I ! ! I 1 wnes in I iiiothei 

toI( i i Iflbcfif uithi 


cd bii, 

a il I bsc 

tpli nil d tntnd is wnes is 
house and home keepeis It is quite ubvi 
ous that one hour a da> of the time and 
presence of a praciirally edu( itcd level 
headed woman in m^u^gul[; pi inning ! nd 
dirctl I lh( III snf ill us h 11 lb worib 
mcielb nil \ 1 !e w !\ lit lime of her 
feeble I illeiiu uiit I ur I do 

beluve with 1 1> \\bjlL li rt m cbirmni"' 
well oidered h m\ s I ut ibeie is one daik 
cloud I fain would b unsb fiom the tucsidcs 
of my native hind— the tned pitmalurely 

T r 

aged ph}bu 

aud 111 1 


tie b I 

The L le J Jl J b 
States wbolnemb I 
tram one woman toim 
resources aud liabilit 
bursements ani i im 
of these hous I 
enoDgh foni 

1 1 w fe ud mother 

to . 

3 collegi 

3 But women who have been trained to 
earn their own living will not wish to 
mury Well if nobody w luis to many 
them that is foitunate I bavesomcliraes 
sinih d to bear these two arguments from 
the sime ehionic objector to all progress 
It remmdb me of a song of long ago 

On this, point Miss Emily Faithful of 
England sajs Do womeu murr> then 
for hunger not for lov e ? No \\ ouder w e 
have so many wretched homes Let us 
give women a fairer chance in freedom to 
marry wiselj and not force it upon them 
as a bread and buttei necessity • 

Much of this iteration and reiteration of 
danger to the home in case opportuniiies 
for women are enlarged is not healthful 
sputunent, nor sentiment at all but mere 
flunsy sentimentalii} , and often procceels 

I I fr m lit fnenls but fr mi the tnt mit s 
of the lireside v\ho hive other re is >ns 
lb in they state for wishing women to stay 

One min v\ s 1 I in_ lor i wife who 
bid t 1 I 1 

he sai t I 

ary pi i ' 

w IS ncl valid ob li« bui taken ^oed cue lo 
protect himself fiom the law It is not 
generally known that tbe author of tbe 
CMjuiijite ballad llome Sweet Home 
was a gay roaming bachelor who never 
helpeei any woman to build a home md 
who Bctlled his boaid bills with his Imd 
latiy by icrbnl pi imiscs to pay 

T In I 11 1 bachelors in a 

biar 1 the law by the 

d i(\ I it offering the 

f I u leadmess to help 

Is tt bnd their proper 

I mockeiy to try to per 

1 ve tbe home Why it is 

I 1 soul of a woman to love 

]i me ^li ! nils it ind fiiiui hes it as a 

child wUb hei bUxl b md her d lis her 

kittens and hci bii lb Vs she f.iort solder 

she mikes It lu minnt lie in her school 

loom wilh b(i pictiiies her flowcis her 

ol 1 a c bivinj, Idessed thousands of lives 

I 1 > t L somehow h iv in? missed tbe sweet 

s ( f her ov\ n children the bat and coat 

ip in tbe hall that indicate a fiiend 

I pinion lie at d ind Then she is 

I I ^e t f 01 t he w Ol Id To taunt a lonely 

wnmin with her loneliness a, homeless wo 

man with hei homelessuess has been a fa 

vorite amusement of men and bo^s fiom 

time immemorial thiough \oicc and peu 

press and pulpit 

While I was prepjiiu„ to lea\e home I 
lecene 1 M ni il 1 punpbkt beimon bj a 
populir clei-,jiiiui m e ir ncichboihood in 
which be eilkd m ehkily muden hdy a 

h things are manly thank God I 
a woman I He will send the maiden lady 
bispimphlct and I trust she will say I 
am thankful in my soul I never happened 
to many that man 

The woild c 
piylominy i 
md Ituiicd ou 
^euib v\h his thencefoith faced the woild 
v\ ith 1 detLrininilion to do in and for it all 
Il 1 II km lor herself only a 

I in the evening 

ellection mil 
t r Earth for the 
the purest saints 

outheshinm!; threshold of our heivenly 
mms! ! thrir f,'tn!le tices ni i^ f,rcet us 
II —It t 1 t "We twi) well siy to 
i i It s i h a w ill m A 

I 1 h 1! m> SI (er be while thou 

h tl \1 

Ontbeolhti hind too many women do 
profounell> belicvp the lesson the\ hive been 
Bofiitbfullj taught that they bhould fiom 
the ver) fict of then nominhood be sup 
ported by men In one famih I 1 new four 
al le bodied women cliujmj foi suppoit to 
one man antl be w ib old aud poor aud 
hme and blin1 nf in eye -md hid the 
ctinsumi I ! S 1! inely tiustfully 

they el \ith his f Uher'^ 

andt I It on the arm 

they dooi in a great 

1 ° 

I I n this 

numbers of abandoned ai i II 

I aluaj stalk with them im I i \ I i 
eaining an honest living I l \ \ 

I have not found one who did ntt "believe 
implitity that wonieu should look to and 
depend upon men for faupport 2 luft isjust 
what they aie don / 

A devout cl I 1 

businei.3 tiainin I 
to pleach again I 
in thit direction 

famdy of dau^l le i 1 ill 

oneof them to leani h u to e nu i dullai 
and uev er sh ill He w ho feeds the i avens 
when tbe> crj wilt take care of my chil 
dien this ar umeiil of helpless trust m 
Providence bui a tieinendous effect upon 

well as of k 
blessings upon li 
of gei 

Lord blesses 
into an old prove 1 11 IIil i " tl i 
who help themselves Now the Prinee of 
Sheol who goes about like a roaring lion 
seeking whom he may devour would like 
nothing better than to gobble up a family 
of girls reared on that reverend gentleman s 
plan and he will do it loo to a certaintj. 

suddenly bcicft of 
nen Be patient 
ivell but It isnt 

li f II I I 11 f iiU t ted 

m II s 1 lr\ Vi iv su ^ests tint nun 
mi itt I t 111 u] 111 is\\ mtntirtothe 
ed e of tl e w ill i I di v\ ii Ikem in the 
good old I irbiiu l\le 

I think the tiutkuc^ of young men to 
crowd into the h kt < is\ eecupations ad 
mirably adipted to womeu necels looking 
after There is loom enough and woik 
enough for all 

Rather than starve youi sister woman 
listen to the sage of the Tnhune, young 
man and go west for Uncle Sam is 
nckciioujit ^i \ I 11 a farm 

5 Tb tl 1 f womeu wbuh 

tbcwh lev 1 1 llodccnmplish 

sli ul 1 It I I it agunst giv 

pee ted I 

ireuethen the 
I 1 f^ive melt to 

the 1 "jj b i 1 I I ind then j ikc 

them to-,ei lei 1 i lUI 1 e ivy cait of life 
up the bill I hive seen a woman who 
could driw a dinft as easily as a babj 
w iMU and could do loth gricefully 
auelvvdl Of course cverjbodj said she 

•^evcn children and all on 'em gals 
whatcvei 1 they do fur a livm ? said a 
lony li inded stoop shouldered woman a 
faimeiswife who had Inked and brewed 
and w isbcdaud sciubbed aud like the cue 
my of ni ml md sewed / ns while the 
husbind skpl and bil al\ vs 1 n sup 
ported b\ kei husl II h af 

llictedb\ Ihedtatl I his 


111! Iwiih r 


b Hi It nil Lke mil t t 1 ecp the 
wolf from the dofi One became a dress 
mikcr one a teicher one an artist one a 
kniiter one opened a bakeiy one taught 
music aud tbe little one w is put to school 
until bei talents should develop Aud the 

nld V 

all 01 

p ssm t I tbe libji m 1 

vveilthi 1 li u H 1 l\\ en 15 and bO 

veils 2(jn)2 women aie vvoikii^ toi 
then li\m„ outside of their own homes a 

:of f 

. every 

four ovLi I') yens of a, 

seveuo\crlO I w ill idmit thit the chilU 
laboibrtvvteulO an 1 15 \eii3 is an unmili 
gated em i dt ii" lu j i iinlini mai 
iiat^cs d i I din ( Tl 1 

deitb 1 I t 111 

then cbil 1 I I 

upon tb 1 1 



It the c* uulry lieiiip 'f> cei Is id v 

Ihisobvi us and abunnnil Ic e utnge as 

t w I rs an 1 1 f 11 s ofl il 11 IS due ih I onh 

t 11 e L i il lines ml kvcofdomin 

IK il >eis but fai 

II etud helpless 

tl ining ou the 

mouth 01 jgLl then v\a;,es witkuut eiuebtiuu 
when due 

An hour later Tiamp tiamp tramp 
thebojs aie marchm,; to their daily toil 
They will have an hour to rest at noon to 
eit with girls toi\ait ou them aud will 
slopwork at 6oclock p m For their ten 
houra libni thtv will " tfiom two to five 
dollars ad v ri t tl ! 1 f I 

pel justice m that way Not strong 
enough / What class of women are not 
strong cnouijh? Those win dr< im and 
do7e and sigh for mom 1 It t sr Invt 
and flowers who cult i I 

eharmoffomi color i b 

and linguishmg look t ill 

minded dude who il i i I tf 

women who appeals in e inllt s w ivs to 
every man she meets to protect her from 

|i I I II I 

ill [ 

kmdh , 1 I uill II II li \ \ 

andiueldmc; du p tiUts f 1 1 the f ni 
dinner scour floors wash windows a 
pound bed quilts she is also strong cnou 
to di iv\ up i pelilifii sitiiie the e \ 

wa^c fu e luivaleut vvoik with I 
established fact 

clirenie obiector appears j 

M\ dear maelam the wo 

,v ill a 


■ illv 


their laboi True tb i: 
these women will return to tl eir pr p r 
spheieand be supporlcd 1 \ mcu aud we 
dontciiemuch whatbeitnu'^ of yo i until 
\ouleirn to be just to vvoil lug women 
\\ hen men stiike foi wecl s utl luf nths at 
a tunc in addition lo ism ill sum from a 
f.cnLrilfund provided bj themselves for 
tbcbc cnierj;encies their w omen at home un 
eomplimingly take m washing or sewmg 

t ) keep the pnt hnilm" 

Thedemi If 1 I ' 1 s tvice is so 

impcritive nen could 

mil e tkeir I \ kivv 

But, m ungrateful 

this is CI 1 c ndition 

ofwomanbisi j 1 k w Cbnstianitv 

his made her flee aud set her u[ on a kill 
and how all ^^ood men levereuce bei T>on t 
make her discontented with the cstite to 
which God his called her by presenting 
these needless and distuibing calculations 
and dangeious and troublesome sugges 

"ies I 1 1 1 n tl 1 The 

transition f i 

as househ I I m 
their masi 

of the huiuai 

tiansmitted through tl 

ingwomaussirvK I 

the ni in w b I 

loci ed and I 1 

ma\ biveov 1 I 

interest of ti I 

hammei to mil el 

door Households m i i 

wheie they could not 1 I 1 

behiied audtkene\t i I i 

tbcfither husband oi lu i i 

herself It sccuiedbettei sLivice an 

mtie advantageous even to the wo 


We simply propose to wrm n li t 
on in the line of imp 
elbics USUI ' oul\ tl 


Ihc^iil wl 1 m le etr 1 ell i 
vurlr ilf t wi It ^ ut It 

e f ludi 

1 (f her 
( 111 f isk 

luaioled that they did i 

« D B ^ MEUB 



^ 44 #' W jI ^(^ ^ 

'■oiii pen-and-ink copy, executed at the office of "" 
constitutes one-half a page, and x^n P«r< of th. 

i of forty different alphtibets gicen i 
mailed at present for |3.50. 

ATTicfi' Ncin Compendium, and 

MaiiufRctiiroi-8, mevliaiijt^aud iiiinlug.. 

ptition (if liiiiiKlry wurk, i;* lifiiig r 
niotiopolized by mea. I mentioned 
nyejirogo ti gentlcmim in Wiishingto 
iw-surrsiiK! tbiit bf rountH und 

presents for iiv 

skill iiud in^'unuity. 

these Women wak'iiuen iiuil bu»tmen ; how i 
Sliid ttnd happy they nuist. be ! Not for I 
then) the poet's wid refmin : I 

chiirge. This, of < 

qnenlly in Washington than elsewhere. 
But the main drawback to the advancement 
of women in all of these avenues of work, ia 
her lack of business training and ability to 
secure advantages lying within easy reach 
or to protect herself from immediate or im- 
pending disaster. I often say to the never 
ending procession of women who come to 
me for help and counsel in such emergen- 
cies, " Why do you come to me ? Why did 


■ou desire. 
There has not been a t 

Ii;h1 „ p< 

'hen I would li 
gold, and retire 
up my business 
has given me to 
not have taken 
nlntiou of than 
the Advanceuu 

nkfn ?;i,noo a year 


1 for 
' helping 

t ..f W 
cure the fair counting of ' the 
women workers of the country. 

Business college presidents and teachers, 
your doors are open wide for the practical 
education of the 34,000,000 of American 
women and girls. " Are yon providing for 
your own wives and daughters the training 
ynii ^n rfni|iirnlly ncuimiiend to all otlier 

<•[ v\-.i\u\A<- 1- wmmIi :i [njimd of precept? 
^•■iiii- .In , |mI. -i,;l,|<,vv wilt sit at your 
lM< W I, i: .,--.iii,,i,,v iiitvr you that 

\ "III -i.( ..■..'■ Ill Iri -;|M.-- will ^•■•\\ justly 

'■■ li:. ....,...■ .. .,, ;,. .. . I,. -I if they 




The I 

of the Monbifes, 

of Pharaoh, __ ._. .._ .,, 

Ammonites. Edomites, Zidonians and llit- 
tiles, all were purchased, weighed in the 
Ii:l[:iii(c and found wanting- Ilis queenly 
I 1' I In 1. touched with the spirit of prophecy. 
• J N\ :i vision of the woman of the nineteenth 
niitiiry, and made her son sit at her feet 
!ind hear the <!. -niptinu ■■ What, 
my sou. and whi.I n „ ,,f „a 

Rehoid a virluou- \M)u,i;ii ! her price is 
above rubier. 
The heart of her husband doth safely 

trust in her, so that he shall have no need of 

She will do bim good and not evil all the 
days of her life. 

She seeketh wool and flax, and worketh 
willingly with her hands. 

She is like tbc merchant's ship, she bring- 
eth her food from afar. 

She considereth a field and buyeth it ; 
with the fruit of her hands she planlcth a 

^in jiriiili ii( r loins with strength and 

- .. I iMii :iii;ii(I of the snow for ber 
ii-u, iinid, lut ;ill her household arc clothed 
Hiib scurlft. She maketh fine linen and 
selleth it, and delivereth girdles unto the 

Strength and honor are ber clothing and 
she shall rejoice in time to come. She open- 
eth her mouth with wisdom and in her 
tongue is the law of kindness. 

Sue looketh well to the ways of her 
household. Her children rise up and call 
her blessed ; her husband also, and he prais- 
etb her. 

Give her of the fruit of her hands, and 
let her own works praise her in the gates 

And hewlH. Iind Rpnken " "'" 

ded these wmiI- 
to the end of the 

, ad- 

FnroAV MoitNii 

1:30 A 

In the penman's section, D. T. Ames led 
a discussion upon ' ' methods of (earhing 
writing." In substance he said: "The 
method to i)e employed in teaching writing 
must vary according to circumstances. It 
is quite obvious that the methods suited to 
a business college, having pupils advanced 
in years and attainments, cannot be em- 
ployed in the various gi'ades of our public 
schools, and especially in the lower grades. 
In the business college, with its advanced 
pupils and individual instruction, much 
more progressive courses may be pursued. 
Often a few hintii and appropriate criticisms 
are all that is necessary to change a previ- 
ously acquired hand to one in every way 
suited to business. But with the primary 
pupil it is far different ; with bim progress 
is slow and difficult, and copies and instruc- 
tion should be nicely graded from the sim- 
plest elementary forms and combinations to 
words and composition. Instructors of 
large and miscellaneous classes for a course 
of twenty or more lessons must adopt a 
different courae than is suited to either bus- 
iness college or primary instruction. It 
must be more brief, and such us to cover. 

in the most concise manner, practice upon 
movement, all the fonns and combination 
with composition copies. Within a few 
years some misguided teachers, observing 
that pupils while learning never \vrite in a 
style practiced in the counting-room, have 
advocated the use for copies auch writing as 
is found in the counting-room, believing 
that the inexact style would not only be 
more easily acquired but more practical. 
They say. set before the pupil the kind of 
work they are to do as men ard women. 
Many instructors boast that they teach b\is- 
iness writing only ; their claim sounds very 
plausible, but none is more mischievous, 
false and misleading. 

In all things we must have a standard. 
In disputes concerning weights and meas- 
ures we have scales or measures by which 
we settle all tjuestions ; so in wi-iting we 
have establif'hed principles and standards as 
in all other' branches of instruction. If we 
are to use counting-room copies we may 
have fine writing.hutwith even inlhebestof 
copies of this kind we find no uniformity, 
and if the pupil lie set to use such copies he 
uill iiml :i iiMilii|.|itiiy of styles which will 
ei.iiii. ii ' 11. .iiid he can giun notb- 

blanilv wii>iii^ .-~itiiidards. In teaching, 
our only hope of success lies in the use of 
fixed standards, and though stiff and mo- 
notonous they are indispensable. We 
need not carry them into the coimting- 
room, but when the pupil has learned to 
imitate his copy he will soon acquire a free, 
easy hand, beautiful and acceptable. If we 
chose to write always in the counting- 
room as we do in the school-room the case 
would be different, but we want in the 
former, speed and dispatch, the basis of 
which is best laid by careful study and 
practice of the school-room copy. 

With such copies cacli sucrcssive grade 
in the public school would find a different 
style of copy, and the pupil would, to a 
great extent, undo in one room what he 
had learned in the preceding. Such was 
my own experience, and at the age of 
eighteen my writing comprehended some of 
the styles of each of the many teachers who 
bad a share in my early training. 

We want simplicity in our teaching, dis- 
carding all unnecessary forms and lines. 
I think the copy books as now used present 
the beat uids that can be had. With the 

average professional teacher it is well t(i 
unc them, tlioujrh if he be a good writer his 
owD copies are preferable, but the numlter 
of such instructors is painfully few. Re- 
garding analysis, I thiok Ihose who employ 
it will succeed best. If one person be more 
skillful than another, it is because he has a 
superior conceplion of form, and the ahiliiy 
to reproduce in visible shape the image in 
bis mind. Practice will not always make 
prrfecl, since it may sometimes result in 
confirming an evil habit. When n boy hav- 
ing a cojjy before him practices carelessly 
after his own sweet will, he gains nothing 
by any amount of desultory work, but if 
we con get into his mind the tixed principles 
and form of his copy he will very probably 
make a good writer. The teacher should at 
once seek to get the minds of his pupil to 

A. II. Iliumnn— If I were to teach in 
public schools I should first make vise of the 
best copy books. Children should first ac- 
(juire position which is all important, and I 
have found tluit where attention has been 
paid to this subject the best results follow. 
The head should aiwiiys be held erect and 
Ihe weight taken off the arms, or put on the 
left. The manner of holding the pen prop- 
erty is all important. (This subject was 
illustrated by the speaker). Previous to the 
age of fifteen but little can be done with 
muscular movement. Form is essential. 
Hince on it depends all our penmanship, and 
iliis in return depends much on analysis. 
An angle of fifty-two degrees is the best for 
combining legibility and speed in writing!. 
The width should be three-fourths the 
length, in all except loop letters. On a 
pupil's pride depends nearly all his success, 
without which but little will be accom- 
pli.shed. The faithful pupil seeks encour- 
agement, and when he docs well should 
have it. Discouragement will follow the 
early attempt of the scholar, and should be 
overcome by a few judicious words on the 
part of the speaker. The blackboard is an 
important factor in teaching penmanship, 
aiiil ought to be used freely. No attention 
should be given to speed with children, 
which is secondary to form. Enthusiasm is 
indispensable on the part of the teacher, 
which will be imparted to the pupil with 
good results. The success of the well-known 
Dunton depended on his enthusiasm for his 
work, as well as that of Gough, the most 
successful orator of the land. 

C. C. Cochran— I am pleased to be here, 
and desire to make a suggestion regarding 
work of this kind. Generalities are to be 
avoided. I have found a brief presentation 
of methods will be most beneticial to a con- 
venlion of experts. Any person who has 
long been a teacher can edify by telling his 
experiences with the copy-book and other 
appliances. We should confine our remarks 
to fifteen minutes eiich, and no one speak 
ilie second lime until others have had an 
opportunity. My experience has been that 
Ihcre is more uniformity among business 
writers than is found with professionals. 

Mr. Ames— I think the speaker somewhat 
ruisunderetood my remarks concerning bus- 
iness writing. Flourishes and sprawls are 
to be utterly condemned. I have found 
great uniformity in the writing of many in- 
dividual business men, but seldom are any 
two found to be nearly alike. Each man's 
individuality is stamped on his writing, and 
it cannot generally be used as a copy. A 
general standard is indispensable. Without 
this, dispute must be endless. Even the 
pupil, through the aid of such standard, 
may sometimes criticize the teacher when 
the taller dcjiarts from it. 

Wright, of Missouri— I feel indebted to a 
standard, for, without it, I should not have 
became a good writer. I have been teach- 
ing the art for twelve years and expect to 
continue in the work. 1 greatly prefer the 
Spencerian system on account of its sim- 
plicity. Too much stress is laid upon the 
idea that penmanship is a natural gift. We 
should strive to teach true analysis. The 
teacher must have the judgment necessary 
to instruct each pupil in the best manner. 

A few remarks from other speakers closed 
the session. 

During a brief intermission, just previous 
to the opening of the regular morning ses- 
sion, the members gathered in the exhibit 
room (the north hall or lecture room), 
where an ijiformjil receinion was 'cudered 

to Prof. R. C. C'rnmpton. of Illinois Cnlhgc 
founder of the Jacksonville Business Col- 
lege. The regular session was called at 
10 a. m., and the membership committee 
proposed the names of several persons and 
recommended their election to memberahip, 
which was done unanimously. 

The regular discussions of the day were 
opened by h. L. Williams of Rochester. 
N, Y., upon "Theory of Bookkeeping, 
How best Taught." who presenled the sub- 
ject in an interesting and practical manner. 
He regarded bookkeeping, when properly 
taught, one of the most interesting as it was 
the most useful of studies, and was really 
the foundation of the business college 
course of instruction. As to methods of 
teaching it, they were various. Each 
teacher will probably succeed best with his 
own method, as all minds cannot be made 
to nm in the same grooves. While pupils 
should not be led too much by the teacher, 
no pupil should be permitted to proceed 
blindly. All principles aud methods should 
be most fully explained ; simple principles 
should first be taught and illustrated. The 
sensible teacher will of coui-se grade the 
work according to the understanding and 
progress of the pupil, and see that each step 
forward is thoroughly mastered. Our first 
step in insti-ucting a pupil is by a brief 
description of double entry bnokkccpiug, of 

the books cnipln\f.l, llirh nlli.i-s :iiMl Ilic 



i-al idea of jicajuiil,- and dubil .iiuURdil. 

'his is done first through the use of text 
books, which are followed by practical 
demonstrations ; the initiatory exercises are 
written out upon paper ruled same as the 
day-book ; next the principles of Journaliz- 
ing are explained and practised, then the 
ledger is shown and its uses explained. So 
minute and faithful are these instructions 
that not one thoughtful pupil in a hundred 
fails of their mastery. This is done by a 
class-room drill, which we regard as indis- 
pensable, as by this method a teacher may 
accomplish much more than by passing 
around among his pupils aud giving indi- 
vidual instniclion. 

Mr. Packard warmly endorsed the spirit 
of Mr. Williams' statement, and did not 
doubt that his plan of proceedure was best 
for him and those who believed as he did. 
For his own part, however, he felt that 
inasmuch as the student is to begin on the 
study of Accounts, the first thing should be 
to teach him what an account is, independ- 
ently of its relation to other accounts. The 
relation can be more plainly set forth when 
the character of each separate account is 
understood. lie was glad to hear that Mr. 
Williams did not depend entirely on his te.\t 
book method, but filled up the lack by tak- 
ing his boys into a lecture room and talking 
to them. Those "talks" are undoubtedly 

Mr. Cochran believed in both the analy- 
tic and synthetic methods. Neither is cor- 
rect alone ; they should be combined. Modes 
of instruction should be varied, like medi- 
cine, for different patients. 

R. C. Spencer— In directing the mind of 
the student he may be greatly assisted by 
being led through natural paths up to the 
science of accounts. In the primitive con- 
dition of society property in individual 
form was unknown. All was tribal. As 
civilization advanced individual possessions 
became more prominent. When this element 
of property is developed, laws and institu- 
tions begin to be established. Finally we 
reach a point at which exchanges become 
systematized and orderly. Money, which 
has been pronounced one of the greatest iu- 
ventions of man. appears to be the result of 
idea. Next it becomes abstracted and 
have accounts and bills of exchange, 
aud the art of book-keeping is developed. 

Mr. Brown— There are just two ways in 
which this can be done. One is to lay be- 
fore the pupils the forms and have him 
copy them, and he may absorb something 
from them. But after a while he begins to 
ask questions, but must be told that he has 
not yet arrived at a time when he cim under- 
stand Ihem. He copies all the way through 
-nd in the end is ignorant. Some may learn 

this way— not many. 

Another way is for a teacher to appear 
■fore the pupils aud explain to them what 
icy are to -'^ludy. and teach them the first 

ibit and <R-dit and the iiiiturc 
Next should come the cash 
account. From these progress in n natural 
manner until he comprehends the whole 
subject. As tcjichers of bookkeeping we 
are too philosopliical and plunge into deep 
water preciiiitately. 

Mr. Gardner— There are two methods, 
construction and instruction. Too many 
go into the world, constructed ; things of 
beauty and joy for a short time. We must 
have individuality in teaching. At first the 
student is asked to read from the text-book 
until the lecture hour arrives. Draw out 
each pupil by encouraging him to ask ques- 
tions. Writing in books is not so important. 
More necessary is it to sec that the scholar 
has a comprehension of his subject. 

C. T. Smith- Our meflnMs ].<iv ,,..■ .s 
seutially the same as luni' Ur.-u -iv- n ii\ 
others. We believe in iiitrndin in- ;i- t, w 
forms as possible and inaiiiannctrLih ulaliil 
to teach the pupil to think. I regard jour- 
nalizing the most important element in 
book-keeping. We give the student a text- 
book and he is taught what an account is 
and the nature of it. As soon as he has 
learned to keep a cash account he has 
gained something, and then others follow 
until he masters all. He is taught that 
every transaction involves two accounts and 
soon comprehends the elements of journal- 
izing which are the foundation. 

Mr. Nelson believed that pupils should be 
taught to understand principles rather than 
to memorize. Use fewer rules and make 
instruction more practical. 

Mr. Bogardus— When a boy wants to learn 
farming he goes into the field without the 
intervention of books, and asks the older 
men for instruction when it is needed. This 
is the way to teach book-keeping. I can 
never help a pupil imlil he realizes that he 
needs it. Some students think they know 
it all in a short time and should be put where 
they feel the need of help. 

Mr. Pclton— I am so happy I can't keep 
still when I see such evidences of progress 
on the part of the gentlemen who have 
spoken. I acknowledge the debt of grati- 
tude I owe the persons whom I have heard, 
and yet I don't use their books. I use an- 
other, not because it is the best in the world, 
but strive at the same lime to get what is 
good in all of them. My methods of intro- 
ducing a student are nvimerous, and adapted 
to the personality of each. 

Mr. Duff— I think it well to have a stu- 
dent copy some part of a journal and posL 
it. Then let him learn checking, ruling, 
closing accounts aud trial balances. Do not 
try to do too much. Over-teaching is per- 
nicious. The plainest process, even if long, 
is the best. Stick to one thing until it is 
learned. Journalizing is best learned after 
posting and other points are mastered. 

This was followed with a discussion upon 
the subject of " Business Penmanship," 
lead by D. T. Ames, he said : " Writing 
to be good must be legible and rapid ; to be 
legible it must have good form, aud to be 
i-apid it must be simple in its construction 
as regards forms and their combination, and 
it should be small, since it is obvious that 
the pen can be carried over short spaces 
easier and more rapidly than long ones ; 
aud it should have little shade, and be writ- 
ten with a pen above medium for coarseness 
that the unshaded lines may have the requi- 
site strength. I shall speak more specifically 
respecting form, leawng movement and 
other essentials to speakers who may follow 
me. As a rule, there should be but one 
form used for each letter of the alphabet, 
and especially should this be true of a copy 
for learners, having a single standard form, 
the teacher will not only repeat it with 
greater accuracy, but the pupil will more 
readily comprehend and master it. Letters 
and words should be critically analyzed at 
the blackboard. This will greatly aid the 
pupil to acquire a clear and complete mental 
conception of good letters and their proper 
combination. Many pupils learn to write 
through the shere power of imitating the 
copy before them, but not having a high 
mental conceplion of theh- copies, when they 
are removed, their writing at once degener- 
ates ; the hand is without a definite model 
and strikes at random, and produces 
doubtful results. While the pupil, who 
through analytic study and practice, comes 
soon to have a clear conception of wh^t 

he would do, thus is piTscnti-(l In lb., band 
an evcr-prescu tmodel for which it will strike 
and ultimately attain." 

The remarks were freely illuslrated at the 

Mr. Duff spoke of the importance of good 
figures. He said : " In teaching the writing 
of figures I have foimd much difficulty un- 
less I have the earnest attention of the 
pupil. The subject has frequently been 
neglecti'd, but it is as important as any 
other accomplishment with the pen. Many 
good writers are deficient in this respect. 
There is a class of men who make the figure 
very round. Another make a loop. Another 
write them veiy sharp. I prefer the latter 
as it occupies a small space, and is legible 
anil disiiiift Figure writing should he 
tiMiii' Mil. I, sii.wiy than other work, as it is 
"1 III.' jtr".,!!-.! ini|n)rtance." 

^Ii IJiiiii I :iu'rccwith the hist speaker 




lical results. Children 
employed in our large stores are required to 
make many figures legible and quickly. 
They almost invariably become good writers 
and make figures with great speed and regu- 
larity. The same figure should always be 
made with the same number of strokes, 
time can be used in their practice with 
excellent results, 

Mr. Chicken— To make good figures is a 
part of every teacher's business, as well as to 
teach it. A large class can be best handled 
by a regular count. I prefer the figure 2 
with a dot rather than a loop at the top. A 
great many figure 2's are made in the shape 
of a check mark. (The speaker then made 
by request a row of figures on the board.) 
In drilling I take each figure separately and 
sometimes one or two in connection, all to 
be made on the same count. Shading I sel- 
dom use on paper. 

Prof. Osbornfr— I once heard Prof. Pack- 
ard say that he had never seen a person who 
made good tigures who was not a good 
writer, and I have taken the trouble to inves- 
tigate the subject somewhat, and I find that 
this is true almost without an exception. 
Now thequoetion arises whether the figures 
were acquired in learning to write, or the 
writing in learning the tigures ? Each is a 
help to the other, no doubt, but there is a 
certain discipline of the hand in the correct 
ijractice of figures which is very valuable. 
Its peculiar value arises, I think, in the firat 
place, from the fact that the figures being 
all made separately, one learns to put the 
pen ou and take it off the paper, accurately 
and cpiickly, and in the second place, it is 
necessary in making good figures to make 
every part of every figure with care, thus 
acquiring tt careful habit which, as we all 
know, is the first requisite of a good 

One very iuiportant thing in connection 
with the making of figures has not yet been 
referred to, and that is the matter of spacing. 
A large proportion of the mistakes made 
in addition are caused by unequal spacing of 
the figures added, itbeing impossible to fol- 
low a column its whole length. Exercises 
to develop accuracy in ibis direction can be 
given and excellent results obtiuued with 
but little labor. One exercise is to write on 
foolscap paper, of the sheet and 
across the ruled lines, making first the tig- 
• urcs only at the lines, thus learning to move 
the hand the same distance each time. Af- 
terwards write in the same manner, making 
the figures at the lines and halfway between 
the lines. Auother excellent exercise is lu 
write on unruled paper, making the figures 
so they will form squares. They should be 
made rapidly and exactly the same disbincc 
apart in both directions. Ruled paper may 
be used for this exercise, but it is not so de- 

Mr. McKee— We are all agreed tijat com- 
mon honesty requires that every business 
man should be able to write a good hand, 
and we, as teachers, should see to it that 
our pupils acquire this attainment. There 
are four movements in use, the, finger 
whole arm, forearm and combined. We 
should see that the fingers are not too much 
used. I oppose the whole arm movement. 
Iliaproperiy used in muscular exorcises] 
but that of the forearm in writing is bettor 
Large capitals are to be contJenmccL I give 

The abom cut w 
fms heai pri< 

» plioto-engraved from pen-and-ink copy, eaxetiied at Vie office of the Jouknai,, and in given as a specimen of Uttering and. flourishing. The same design 
etl on good paper, 17x21. copies of lohicli loiU be mailed for .SO cents. It ie designed as a certiflmte to be atenrded by teacfters to pupils for special 
impj'ovement in writing. Tliey wiU be m/tiled at $2.50 per dozen. 

iniist atteution to tlie muscular movemcut, 
miikiiif? it light at first ; and I keep my pu- 
pils lit it uutil they master it. After the 
cliisa hiis begun to learii the tlicory the next 
tbing is to show them how to put it into 
pmctice, teaching position, manner of hold- 
ing pen, t&c., giving each pupil individual 
assistance and criticism. I think the best 
results cannot be secured with countiug. 
No two students are made alike and cannot 
:ict in unison. Counting divides the pupil's 
mind and gives him too much to do at once. 
Kcgarding figures, I like the figure 3, as il- 
lustrated. Teach one figure at a time. I 
insist that every pupil in my school shall 
follow my copy until I give them permission 

2 pleasantly varied with 
a vocal duet by Mr. and Miu Spellman, 
Mis-s ICale Gaddis, accompanist, all execut- 
ing tlie partfi assigned with ability. 

The secretary then read dispatches from 
W. 11. Sadler, of Ballimorc, and K. I). Bur- 
nett, of Watkin'sGlou.N. V., regretting their 
iimbility to be present. Also letters from 
('. K. Cady. of New York City, a former 
president. Miss Bertha II. Barron, stenog- 
rapher, of Kochester, N.Y., Messrs. Gregory 
tS;. Forbes, of Alloonn. Pa., coiilninlug also 
:ui earnest invitation to lliu association to 
iiHTl at Altoona next year ; J. George Cross, 
i>f Cliicago, jmd Frank Goodman, of Nash- 
ville. Teim., all expressing regrets on their 
iimbilily to be present. 

Tbe following dispatch was rci-eivcd from 
Erie. Pa.: "Clark College sends greeting 
to the Business Educators' Association of 
America." II. C. Clark. 

A discussion was then opened upon the 
subject of ■■Business Calculations. 

Mr. McKenna— There are many methods 
of computing interest. The six per cent, 
nielluid is quite good and gcnenilly adopted. 
We have one in use wbicli is preferred on 
iiiaiiy accounts mul will now be illustratc-d ac- 
cording t<. Ihc foMowiiig roll' ; Multiply to- 
gether tbe principle, llie time exprcs-sed in 

months and decimals of a month and the rate 
of interest, dividing the product by twelve. 
This is true where each month is reckoned 
as thirty days. 

To compute the time, take tbe difference 
between tbe year in which the note was 
given and that in which it matures ; add 
to this the mouths and days which have 
elapsed from tbe first of the maturing year 
to the time the note is due. Express the 
whole in months and decimals of a mouth 
and subtract from the sum the time which 
elapsed from the beginning of tbe year on 
which the note was given until the date it 
was issued. 

Mr. Duncan then illustrated his peculiar 
manner of computing interest. 

Mr. Cocbrau was then requested to ex- 
emplify bis rule for the same purpose which 
be announced was the six per cent, basis, re- 
garded by him as preferable for all practical 

Mr. Rider — As in writing, rapidity and 
legibility forbid many fonns and flourishes, 
90 in computing interest, if we wish to im- 
part speed and accuracy, we should decide 
upon some good methods that can be adapt- 
ed to locations and circumstances, and ad- 
here to it. A multiplicity of methods con- 
fuses the average student and makes him 
unreliable in any. 

Mr. Elliott— I think there is no rule 
which is best under all circumstances. Yet 
I hardly deem it to adhere too closely 
to a limited number of methods. The ma- 
jority of good accountants will generally use 
the rules best adapted to examples before 
them. If we place before them the manner 
in which interest is computed as a basis ac- 
cording to principles well known, they will 
be able to use various rules at pleasure. 

Mr. ('ocbrau — I find it well to give thor- 
ough drill in the various methods, but gen- 
erally my ride, tbe six per cent, method, is 
the best. 

Mr. Elliott— I think that as a whole the 
six per cent, biwis is the best. 

Mr. H. C. Spencer— If rales of interest 

to decline, or if the Socialists pre- 
vail, we shall soon have no need for these 

Mr. McCord— We have but two methods 
in our institution, and I generally find that 
the pupils settle down to one. Assuming 
360 days to tbe year we find that a dollar 
will earn 1 per cent, of itself in 36 days at 
10 per cent.; in 40 days at 9 per cent., and 
so on. Proceeding on this basis we find 
the interest readily. Or multiply 1 per 
cent, of the principal by the number of 
days and divide by 3fi if the rate be 10 per 
cent., etc. In the case of 7 per cent., tind 
tbe interest at 6 per cent, and add one-sixth. 
I endorse Prof. MaKenna's method of ascer- 
taining the difference between dates. When 
it is desired to get the accurate interest sub- 
tract 1-78 from tbe result. 

was tbeii ini mhIh, , ,| i,\ Mis, Sara A. Spen- 
cer, who il.-i hiivil iiirii thr total depravity 
of the cbrniii, ii;Ld ^p( 111 T could only be 
overcome by regcntnitiou. She immedi- 
ately addressed herself in such a case to 
securing a change of heart, would sit down 
by a student and showing him a page of his 
spelling would say: "My friend, don't 
you feel that you are a miserable sinner, 
and need to be converted. It is your con- 
science that needs to be aroused young man. 
These words don't tell the truih. My dear 
fellow, some day, if you do not turn from 
the error of your ways, your dreadful spell- 
ing will cost you alt that your heart desires 
on earth. Suppose you a young wonnin 
to share your lot in life, and write her that 
her concent wood shed light on your pathe. 
She would refuse you and laugh at you to 
hergrandcbUdren half a century afterwards." 
A young woman once wrote one short love 
letter and broke her own heart with it. 
She only said : '* Deer jon cum at haf past 
ate." (Dear John, come at half past eight.) 
lie didn't come. He never came any more. 
He showed the letter to his companions and 
laughed at it till he was sick."' Then she 
addressed the whole class, perhaps a hun- 
dred at once, and proved to them that by 

mastering twenty words a day, four days in 
a week, forty weeks in a year (the time 
required to complete the business course), 
they would have of familiar command 
3,200 words. Then they are .safe from this 
terrible pitfall of ignorant spelling. She 
calls upon separate students to name twenty 
articles of favorite food ; all write these 
words on paper ; Mrs. 9. then writes them 
correctly on tbe blackboard ; students, with 
red ink. then place a check mark (V) before 
those they have spelled correctly and a cross 
(x) before the errors. In a column on the 
right of the errors the words are written 
correctly in red ink, and again at the close 
of the day on reverse side of daily reports. 
Then articles of clothing, or materials, and 
names of bones and nmscles of the body, 
household and mechanical implements, bus- 
iness terms, and miscellaneous words. 

Afterwaids she introduces a small book 
of synonyms, called 40,000 words, and from 
these the most practical are selected to the 
close of tbe year. She claimed that this 
live method does make good spellers, still 
she hoped the convention would show better 
ones. The errors in spelling she preserved 
as a surgeon does his amputations to study 
disease. It is usually only one letter of a 
word that leads to confusion ; the rest take 
care of themselves. Tbe word most 
frequently misspelled she fouud to be 
■specimens"; and she had calculated by 
law of permutations and combinations that 
her collection of varieties of this word 
would eventually reach 1x2x3x4x3x0x7x8x9 
= 362,B80 combinations. Several thousands 
are already returned and the back counties 
to hear from. She writes errors on the 
board with the correct spelling beside them 
to train tbe eye. A student often laughs 
heartily at his own blunders. 

Mr. Packard— I find in such cases that 
when the question arises the student in the 
future is liable to forget which was correct. 

Mrs. Spencer — I fear such a person Is 
elected to be lost. 

Mr. It. C. Spencer— In -the introductory 
part of the paper blame was put where it 

ilidn't l)eloug. It was due lo our vicious 
lack of system rather than. to ignorance, and 
r think thR labors of our friend liave been 
misdirected. Tbey should have been toward 
the spelling itself. If the Evil One bas any- 
thing lo do with this world it is in our vile 
system of spelling. I believe in the trans- 
mission of evil. I never tried to spell cor- 
rectly until I was married, and then not un- 
less my wife was about. I show my boys 
my letters and tell them not to spell that 
way. When my boy missed nine words 
out of ten I was proud of him, for the wbolc 
of tbem were absurdly spelled. In Wiscon- 
sin we propose to have this matter changed. 
We are down on this pernicious manner of 
spelling. This hasn't yet reached Washing- 
ton, or Mrs. Spencer would be telling a dif- 
ferent story. There is a kind of slnvisbness 
existing among English speaking people in 
the mutter of spelling. • Our language is 
noble but it needs reform in orthography. 
We want more things in the world and less 
words. When you put your finger on the 
orthography of the language, you must say 
to tbem bore is something bard and un- 

Mrs. Spencer— I am partly on my brother's 
side. My desire is to teach simplicity, but 
we are bound and cannot get away yet. 

Mr. Bogarns— I heartily agree with the 
last two speakers on the importance of this 
subject. I hope, in the good time to come, 
that those who enter our schools will be 
good spellers when they come to us. The 
penmanship of a letter may be poor without 
evil effect, but poor spelling is always bad. 
The foreigner meets with untold difficulties. 
If p-1-o-u-g-h spells plow, why should not 
c-o-u-g-h spell cow ? I hope that such or- 
thography as programme will soon be obso- 
lete, but we must teach as the rule now is 
nilhcr than what we would like to have it. 
Instead of long columns of words there 
.should be groups of them all bearing on one 
subject. We must appeal to the eye as well 
as to the ear. In our schools the exercises 
should be varied. Take the word kitchen 
and then select the names of articles used in 
this apartment. On the subject of apples, 
ask for some apple which is a good keeper. 
In this Avay the words have a new meaning 
to the student and he adds much to bis 
stock of ideas. He writes his words in a 
column, and in an adjacent column all cor- 
rections. When I was a teacher in a public 
school, I found a student copying in au essay 
the incorrect spelling be had found in a let- 
ter by Artenias Ward. 

- Mr. Rider — I wish we might have a change 
iu the spelling of our language, hut we 
must take things as we find them, und not 
uudert;ike too great reforms. We must 
leacb our stuilcnls to spell correctly if we 
do our duty — bad spcIU-rs are not wanted, 
and they do u.s discredit. We find the ma- 
jority of student know how to spell eight 
out of ten words. We direct special atten- 
tion to the remaining two, and the result is 

an came to us last year who 
id 8[)eller," in rcpulation, and 
^i.\ mouths be could wrile a 
correct orthography, which 
;d him an cvcellent position 
which be fills with credit and pride, and be 
attributes his success to the fact that we 
taught him how mt to s|)ell so many wortls. 
I do not believe in putting misspelled words 
before the student other tluiu bis own. 

Mr. lleeb-Tbe subject of spdling is the 
first thing to be taught in correspondence. 
It is a subject which requires more attention 
than is usually given by business colleges. 
I prefer writtai <_'xrrrNL-, I Ibink ninit ;it- 
tenliou should U- uiv. ii i.>r,,,i.ri di-i.l.iv. 

Mr. l';ickar,l Mi -.,., :;■ -i" 1,;,^ ;,l tumi.tud 
to mnke a hunmnni^ sp.'irli :iijil li;is ;icrum- 
plished it. Of cuiuse be is not serious in 
what he has said. I don't doubt that much 
of our bad spelling comes from our ' ■ detest- 
able " orthography, but who is going to im- 
prove this detestable orthography, and until 
it is improved, and the critical world accepts 
the doctrine, what are wq to do ? I have 
great sympathy for these spelling reformers, 
and for the gentleman from Milwaukee as 
one of them, but if we look at the small 
progress they have made duiing the last 
forty ycjirs of fevor, we can estimate bow 
soon it will be safe to abandon the study of 
spelling in our schools. 
I hold iu my band a letter just received 




from Isaac Pitman, of Eugkmd. the grout 
originator of phonetic reform. His name is 
phonetically printed at the bead of the let- 
ter, but is signed in the regulation way, and 
ctwry More? in the letter is spelled according 
to Webster. If such men have not the 
courage of their conviction, what hope have 
we of a "reform ?" 

Mr. R. C. Spencer— This matter is a work 
of ages. In my school -we pursue the usual 
plan and ere obliged to give much attention 
to orthography as we have many foreigners. 
There was more of sober meaning and in- 
tent in my remarks than ray friend accorded 
it. I do think, however, a young man may 
succeed in life even if a poo* speller. There 
arc many positions iu which good spelling 
is not indispensable. The leading man of 
our city cannot spell and write correctly. 
On the other band, mere good spelling will 
not alone carry a man through. 

H. A. Spencer — I hope no one in the con- 
vention sympathizes with the gentleman 
from Milwaukee. We must use Webster 
until the new dictionary from Milwaukee 

In the evening a reception was given to 
the members of the association and citizens 
of Jacksonville by the faculty of the Jack- 
sonville Business College and Prof. E. F. 
BuUard, at the Jacksonville Female Aca- 
demy. A large company was present, and 
this occasion proved to be one of the most 
enjoyable events of the meeting. After 
spending the early part of the evening in 
hand-shaking and friendly social greetings, 
the company was invited into the spacious 
chapel, where an informal, but most pleas- 
ing programme, consisting of music and 
short speeches whiled away the time till a 
late hour. It is to be deeply regretted that 
no report was secured of the speeches made 
on this occasion. Some of the brightest 
and best thoughts of the whole meeting 
were uttered on this occasion and they were 
the more enjoyed and worthy of preserva- 
tion, in that they were the spontaneous out- 
bursts of the moment. Seldom bas a Jack- 
sonville audience — any audience in fact — 
seen such a combination of talent brought 
face to face. Principal Brown, the chair- 
man, announced that the speeches must not 
exceed five minutes in length, and each 
speaker was expected to give utterance to 
the first thought that occurred to him on 
being called out. Prof. Bullard, iu some 
sense the host of the evening, was called 
first and fairly outdid himself in a talk in 
which dry humor, keen wit and good com- 
mon sense all seemed to bold an even hand. 
The roars of laughter which the professor's 
happy bits drew forth put a good humored 
audience in a state of miad well calculated 
to enjoy what followed. The speakers who 
followed Prof. Bullard were S. S. Packard, 
N. Y. ; Prof. R. C. Crampton, Jacksonville; 
R. C. Spencer, Milwaukee, Wis, ; President 
E. A. Tanner. Illinois College, Jacksonville; 
L. F. Gardner, Poughkeepsic, N. Y. ; Dr. 
W. F. Short, of Illinois Female College, 
Jacksonville, and Dr. Ira Mayhew, of De- 
troit, Mich. Excellent music furnished by 
a number of the ladies of Jacksonville was 
interspersed through the prognmime. 


Mr. A. H. Ilinman was invited to jiresent 
an analysis of letters, which formed the 
principal exercise of the session. He said ; 
In studying penmanship over 20 years I 
have learned to regard some things as of 
special importance. I think little of a sin- 
gle line, unless something be made with it. 
When forming the conception of a bouse or 
any other object, we think but little of the 
lines forming the figure ; yet they are neces- 
sary. In analyzing letters we should look 
well to the openings. Take well into ac- 
count the shape of the letters and use the 
lines which bound tbem. By paying care- 
ful attention to this we are less liable to 
make mistakes. With the right and left 
curves we can form almost any shape. I 
divide some letters into major and minor 
spaces, and these, with the proper use of the 
curves, will aid in shaping most of the 
small ones. If I fail anywhere iu proper- 
ly producing these openings au incorrect 
letter is the result. I have found this plan 
the most effective of any I have ever tried, 
Variety isdesirable ; anything may be good, 
but we shcnild not adhere too closely to any 
single method. - The subject may be divid- 
ed into slrui^Ut lines, slaut, spacing, size 

anil sliaiiiii- Slraigbtness adds strength. 
We have the sturdy oak, which with the 
clinging vine forms a pleasing picture. 
Either alone would not be complete. So in 
writing. The straight lines combined with 
the curved form the most desirable lettei-s. 

The great attraction of the elder Prof. 
Spencer's writing consisted in the beautiful 
manner in which he combined bis curved 
lines with the straight ones. Equal distance 
apart and a slant all at the same angle, with 
regularity in height are necessary. Exces- 
sive or irregular shading should be avoided, 
as well as lack of it entirely, which is like 
the monotony of a cloudy day. A line 
drawn through the centres of the small let- 
ters should be equally distant from the top 
of a letter I and bottom of a letter y. 

Capital letters should be taught in the 
same manner as small ones. The oval 
egg-shape runs through all capitals and c 
trols that which is pleasing, excess or lack 
of size alwaj's being avoided. A suitably 
shaped quadrilateral should always be borne 
in mind which can contain nearly all the 

Iu the matter of flourishing I find it 
ful to a certain extent, avoiding circles 
niug principally into ovals. Always have 
plenty of space between the words and a 
uniform slant in the ending and begin 
of each, By a proper slant at the top of the 
letters wc secure greater clearness and le: 
bility, as when the fingers of the hand a 
separated they are more easily counted. 

Mr. Cochran — In practical, busint 
writing I do away, to a considerable extent, 
with the loop iu such letters as b, y and g, 
and find it not unobjectionable. 

Mr. Hinman — In that case I think it 
unnecessary to run the letters up so high, 

Mr. Cochran — What objection would 
there be to doing away with loops in 
standard writing ? 

Mr. Ames— I think 19-20ths of the 
trouble with writing comes from pure 

Mr. Ilinman— Or pure cussedness. 

Mr. Ames — Elements of doubt should be 
avoided. I think we must adhere 
fixed forms. The loop is desirable in my 
judgment. There should be a plain dis- 
tinction between the letters t and b. 

Mr. Cochran — The letter t might be made 
without a cross as it is often formed at the 
end of the word. 

Mr. Ames — I think such a thing not de- 
sirable. The superintendent of a great tele- 
graph office said be had the most trouble 
with pure carelessness and next to that the 
use of the doubtful forms. lie showed me 
with several other doubtful words, the 
word twenty so written that it might 
easily be read seventy, causing long litiga- 
tion, thousands being involved, the message 
having been delivered seventy. Examples 
were given on the hoard. 

In answer to a .statement that great fi- 
nanciers despise good writing. II. A. S]R'n- 
ccr said : ' ' Jay Gould testified before a Con- 
gressional committee that he secured his 
first situation by being a good penman and 
having some knowledge of accounts, and 
the great magnate bas his boys pay due 
attention lo the subject of penmanship." 

Mr. Hinman— Shaded lines give strength 
to writing and the upper lines should be 
hold and distinct, glaring contrast between 
up and down lines being avoided, in which 
lies the secret of blackboard, as well as of 
other writing. 

Mr. Cochran — This is the first step to- 
ward degeneration. Fine effect is produced 
by strong contrast between the strokes, but 
plain writing is belter attained by less dif- 
ference between the strokes. The penman 
who possesses form is superior to the one 
who depends on contrast. The paper should 
be moved so as to keep the hand in the same 
position when writing. 

Mr, Ames — There is no conflict between 
the two styles of penmanship. Ornamental 
work bus lis place aud pluiu writing also. 

Each has its appropriate sphere, but they 
should not be intermingled. 

The section adjourned until Monday morn- 
ing at 8 o'clock. 

The first topic for discussion was " Busi 
ness Practice," and was lead by L. F. 
Gardner. The desirability of practice in 
school work is our topic. In our school 
work wc teach the pupil to acquire tlic 
habit of seeing with the mind. On this we 
lay much stress. All these thoughts are not 
yet brought into active practical life. Bus- 
iness practice, as nearly like that of every 
day life is desirable. We bring into our 
schools, money, merchandise and other rep- 
resentations of property. The student is re- 
quired to deposi*: one per cent, of the face 
value of the college currency he receives ; 
all of the nieicbandise have value of one per 
cent.— good money. 

We are tohave cases placed in the room 
to contain samples of the different kinds of 
goods in the market so as to accustom the 
learner to handle such things. In this way 
we endeavor to prepare the student to be 
easily carried over the bridge into the arena 
of actual business. There is nothing to be 
copied. The business of the day furnishes 
the work to be done. The cash is to be bal- 
anced at night ; notes to be promptly paid 
and protested when not. Bills of exchange 
are issued and every plan used to accustom 
the student to the means employed in the 
conduct of business. Attention to forms is 
also required. Other schools may do this as 
well, none can attend to it too thoroughly. 
We generally give one-third to theory and 
two-thirds to practice, the latter department 
being found by far the more intcrcstinsjr. 
The student will work well into the night to 
get his balance and generous emulation often 
aids iu producing good results. 

How does this impress itself upon the 
mind ? Wlien a man is acquainted with 
the forms of the books he bas used theoret- 
ically, he is often at a loss how to apply 
them in practice, but when be is put upon 
his merits and must make up bis books from 
the transactions of the day and not from 
memoranda, the result is better. 

Miss Mayhew read an able and interesting 
paper upon this subject. 

Prof. Rogers — I wish lo emphasize the 
importance of business practice. I think it 
should cover a large part of our time, 
thereby giving the best instruction in our 
power. Some ])ortion of the business prac- 
tice should be a i)art of the early teaching. 
We have found that the practice of having 
the students trade with each other has not 
been attended with the results desired. We 
should attend especially to the habits of our 
pupils. Accuracy is especially desirable 
and too often lacking in our graduates. We 
lay much stress upou intercommunication 
between business colleges, goods being 
bought aud sold between them, which with 
bills of lading and exchange have an excel- 
lent effect in preparing the scholar for actual 
business. There is more difficulty with the 
transportation feature than any other. 

Another trouble lies with the work of our 
correspondents not being done properly. 
Frequently we get communications fi-om 
other schools asking for a statement of ac- 
count, because they are behind with their 
own hooks Our statements from New 
York arc usually correct, as are those from 
Cleveland and other schools. 

Mr. Chicken spokeon^^tat(■In(■nl^, balances 
and vouchers. The wnil{ i,r iniiiaiiiiL' the 
student is first don<.' in llirlli.Mrv ,|rparl- 
ment, where the Irausartimi.^ aiu Hinidi'd 
for him, and he is next placed where be 
prepares these transactions himself. The 
pupil fli-st works from bis card of instruc- 
tions, placing on bis ledger a number of ac- 
counts with various persons and things. At 
tain point be wants to know how he 
stands, and he must Uike those accounts and 
place them in proper order, tjiking the hal- 
3 and obtaining the proper result. The 
trial balance is to show that the debts and 
edits are equal, which is not a conclusive 
test. After he has obtained his trial bal- 
he must next ascertain his losses and 
gains. When that is done the net loss or 
gain is found. The balances aside from 
the loss and gain accounts show the proper- 
ty on band or debt^ owed. In all our tnms* 
actions we use the proper vouchers, bills, 
lie. , flliug away tlie papers until the set of 

The abore whole arm capitals were })]u>to-eTigrated from aypy executed oh Vie jcltolearm movement at the office of the Jodhnai,, and an 
gieen in Ame^Neio Compendium. The ejitire work consists of mventy 11 x 14 inch plates, and is the most compre. 
extant. Mailed atprcsent at the reduced price, $3.50; regular price, $5.00. 

'■ of fof'^y different alphabets 
lie art of peimianship 

books 16 complete. Notes are also carefully 
preserved and all other papers and all exam- 
ined when Ibe set is tomptetc. Accuracy is 
rigidly insisted on and generally secured. 

jMr. Elliott— Class transactions and rec- 
ords. 1 think nothing more important 
ili:in ilmnnigh couree of business practice. 
'I'lic im)(nictical charartcr of business col- 
Ic.m; slnilnils has been owing to mere book 
education only. Tliere are many methods, 
and Ihorouiihnehs and accuracy arc to be 
most desired. A slndciil will only go as far 
as his theory instruction will carry him. He 
must have u memorandum of transactions 
to guide him. The student should be led to 
make a series of transactions different fntm 
what he has already made. It will be im- 
possible for one man to look over the work 
of thirty students each day. Kach day we 
give the student n cttrd of iuHtruetions what 
to do, but not how to do it. At the close of 
the day the books are handed in and the re- 
sults nnist be made correct. To this we 
g(ve four weeks ; the tirst the student ia 
alone, the second with a partner, the third 
doing business at a loss, the fourth employed 
in making up the loss of the previous one. 

This secures faithful, earnest effort on the 
part of the learner. Next he is placed in the 
various business houses, wliGi'c be handles 
books of a reasonable si/,{>. and if he can use 
these correctly, he will biivc contidence in 
his ability in actmil business. This will be 
expensive, but it will commend itself to the 
practical business man who visitH the col- 

Mr. Cochran— While there are some 
peculiar individualities among the various 
colleges, the same practical results are at- 
tained ; speed, accumcy and practicability. 
It is impossible to arrive at correct results 
without proper checks each day. Settle- 
ments, cheeking, balancing cash accounts 
and balances arc all desirable. After an ex- 
perience of many years I have never seen a 
trial balance in actual business, and it should 

not be encouraged in 

my actual pi-actice, my employer used my 

balances, which I took great pains to have 

Dr. Bryant — I think authors do not pro- 
pose to present the matter of a trial balance 
just as it is to be used in practice, but more 
as an assistance to the student in getting 
correct residts. I seldom think it necessary 
to make complete trial balances in business. 

Mr. Cliicken — We have used the trial 
balance in the theory department, but wbeu 
we get to the ofBce work we simply make a 
statement of balances. 

I>i ' < r.i^uii I'liere is a necessity for 
icjii h : I I iiw and business forms 

in itn I : i;. _^^ (if the country. The 

law is lui il.. 1..I1. in .(! ihepeoplegenendly, 
and should bu understood by them so far as 
it relates to their individual acts. Ignor- 
ance of law excuses no one, hence the necf s- 
sity of fully undeistanding our legal obliga- 
tions in all matters pertaining to our business 
transactions. Commercial law is as impor- 
tant to the business man as the compass to 
the mariner. Suitable text-books on com- 
mercial law have heretofore been much 
needed. The demand for more practical 
works has caused several to be published. 
A practical knowledge of the laws of busi- 
ness cannot be neglected with safety. 
Knowledge of law creates respect for it. and 
promotes solf-reliam-e on the part of those 
possessing it. It if not neces.sary for the 
business man to learn what the lawyer 
should know. Law is now generally di- 
vided into different branches, and books are 
published which are easily understooti. 
There are numbers of practical treatises on 
these subjeet.s all having much nu-rit. I 
think a text book on law for business col- 
leges should comprise aueh subjects as are 
usually liable to arise in everyday life— con- 
tracts and negotiable paper being the most 

important. Outside tlic special knowledge 
students receive from text-books, they gain 
much in everyday contact with those who 
use these forms. We do not propose to turn 
out regular lawyers, but to fit our students 
for practical life. 


F. Longworth — The necessity of teaching 
commercial law needs no comment. None 
of us know enough of it. An old minister 
once remarked that lie preached as long as 
his audience would stand it, and so we 
should teach all the commercial law a stu- 
dent will bear. There are many ways of 
teaching this subject. I much prefer to 
teach by lectures and text-hooks combined, 
since the pupils too often fail to pay atten- 
tion (o lectures only, when no cxaminitiiou 
Is to follow. Commercial law should be 
(aught by one who thoroughly understands 
it. In recitation I order books closed and 
ask one to tell about negotiable paper add 
another on a different subject. Much pro- 
gress is thus made, though of cour.-^e we 
don't pretend to make lawyers of onr stu- 
dents. Wlicn you come to examinations let 
them be thorough. Wc have live days de- 
voted to this purpose and try to find out 
what onr pupils have learned on the subject, 
and when a student can answer JJU per cent, 
of the questions, be knows something of 
commercial law. In one class of 100 we bad 
but one who failed to answer 00 per cent, of 
the questions, and he was the lazy son of a 
lawyer. Another bad a record of 01) per 
cent. Some think this course too long. I 
don't think it is long enough. 


II, liussell— The necessity of a course in 
commercial law is becoming daily more im- 
portant. Millions are lost every year through 
lack of knowledge of the law. The subject 
is constantly receiving more attention at the 
htnds of business colleges. A man cannot 
be a good book-keeper without a knowledge 

cial law. Text books arc indis- 
pensable in the study of this subject, and 
Ibe student should be required to get the 
matter and present it in his own words. I 
think the work prepared by our friend. Dr. 
J. C. Bryant, assisted by Judge Clinton, is 
excellent. It is without objectionable Latin 
terms. Law books for our work should be 
in plain, simple terms. The merit of Presi- 
dent Lincoln's speeches was his plain, 
straightforward manner of speaking. When 
be said to my brigade, which was on ila way 
to the front. "Boys, stand by me and I'll 
stand by you," we all knew what be meant. 

was opened with a paper by the Hon. Im 
Maj'liew, on "How can Book-keeping be 
Best Taught. " The paper was a very able 
ami interesting one, and we regret that want 
of space forbids its publication here. This 
was followed by well prepared papers on 
the same general subject by C. E. Baker. 
Bloomington, III., and J. M. Frasher, 
Wheeling, West Virginia. 

At the conclusion of this subject, Mr. C. 
M. Eames. proprietor of the JaekeonvilU 
Dnily Journal, wasintroduceil and extended 


>rdial i 

> at- 

tend a reception at the Y. M. (_'. A. building 
on the following Tuesday evening. The in- 
vitation was accepted. 

Mr. S. S. Packard— The advantages of 
shorthand are apparent, but liow to teach it 
is not so easily totd. The tirst requisite is a 
teacher who knows some good system, 
knows it well, and believes it to he the best. 
Shorthand is, in itself, ottractive, and 
equally so to pupil and teacher. There is 
about it a mystery and a satittfaclion which 
will repay any research and any labor, and 
which at the same time tempts the pupil_ 
from his very impatience, to become super- 
ficial. It is only as he beconu-s really pro- 
ficient that be ceases to skim along the sur- 
face, and dives for Ibe fundamental consid- 
eration. A fair knowledge of words is es- 

flcntial to one who would get on ; and espec- 
ially of tlicir proniiDcintion and meaning. 
He needs to analyzctbesoundsof words and 
to mark tlic flne distinctions. The New 
York boy, for insLinoc, has to Ijc taught 
ihat««wdoes not end with c, nor rhyme 
wilh "bore." To make the knowledge of 
shorlhnnd available, other knowledge is 
iir-ccssary ; and a proper study of shorthand 
makes this want apparent. In the language 
of the Long laland schoolmaster's advertise- 
ment, "dull boys are wound up and set 
a-going. " A study of shorthand will inspire 
a love for good literature, and send a boy to 
the dictionary. It will induce him to lay 
aside his dime novels for Dickens, Thack- 
eray, Emerson and Carlyle. As a beginner 
i« blind to his own bhmdcra it is a great 
mistake to have him follow the forms which 
have been evolved from his own conscious- 
ness however well he may have studied the 
principles upon which they are supposed to 
be fiiunded. He should always have before 
him models that are lis perfect as they can 
Ite iiii^de. lie will soon enough vary from 
llteiiv to satisfy any stickler for individual- 
ity, lie should write from dictation as soon 
asi practicable. 

Me should forget that words are made up 
(if letters instead of sounds. When an eser- 
ci^te has been found incorrect the errors 
should be re-written ten times. After the 
principles have been mastered the need of a 
teacher becomes greater. Phrasing should 
bu- learned by absorption through practice. 
I'lipils may be grouped into fours or fives 
for reading and writing. The lesson hav- 
ing been read two or three times over it 
should be read by each for the others to 
write, slowly, so that the slowest can take 
it all off. 

Thus in a few weeks a great many words 
and phrases will have become familiar. All 
should be carefully supervised by the teach- 
er, and in a short time the pupil will write 
GO words a minute by this method. After 
phrases have been acquired the pupils should 
be taught to write from dictation, letters, 
sermons, law reports, etc., being used. 
This method of practice has produced pupils 
capable of writing 140 words a minute in 
14 weeks. A good knowledge of letter 
writing and of the English language is nec- 
essary as well as a competent teacher, and a 
teacher to be in the highest sense competent 
should know many things besides short- 

The subject was further discussed by 
Messrs. Cochran, Baker, Dan Brown of 
Chicago, Barnes of St. Louis, Wiuans of 
Rockford, Hi., Hinman, Rendall of St. 
Louis, Mrs. Treat of Hannibal, JIo., and 
Miss Lizzie Askew of Jacksonville. This 
closed the day's proceedings, and as the ses- 
sion was prolonged somewhat beyond the 
usual hour for closing, it was decided to 
hold no evening session. Adjourned to 
9:30 a. m. Monday. 

On Sunday morning the association at- 
tended services at the State Street Presby- 
terian Church, where by invitation, the pas- 
tor. Rev. A. B. Jlorey, preached a sermon 
appropriate to the occasion. Mr. Morey 
took his text from Matthew, 22d chapter 
and 35th to 40th verses. The sermon was a 
masterly effort, and as it was reported in full 
by A. Adams, on the stenograph, it will ap 
pear just as it was delivered, in the final re- 


s sEcrroN. 


T. M. Burrough was the first speaker, 
lie illustrated at the blackboard his novel 
nu'thod of teaching and practicing drill in 
mov.-m.Mit lo Die tim-- nf music. He thought 
this 111. ilinr! x,i.,.riM, In the use of the metro 
motif III' iiriiiii r| imm-uient to regularity 
of iniiii.iri, ilitis ilu' iiciU to music furnished 
id Uie same lime it was an iusinration to 
Mil- pupil. 

This plan when practiced by a teacher 
vvhoeorabined the ma-stery of the pen with 
the accomplishment of nmsic, may be made 
t.i produce good results, but we doubt its 
general efficacy. 

After a brief discussion of Mr. Burroughs* 
method, the exercise of the morning was 
given by II. A. Spencer, of the Metropolitan 
Business College, New York. 

"In a professional experience of more 
than twenty years it has been my privilege 
to instruct over one hundred and fiftv 
Ih.iusaud students in alt grades of publi'i- 

and private schools.'iiside fn-iii my busiiiLvs 
college work. 

In the primary grade, children should be 
taught to read writing as readily as print. 

The front, right and Jeft oblique positions, 
also right side position, should be understood 
and ]>racticed, giving preference to the one 
which admits of the best use of the light 
and furniture of the room. Ambidextrous 
writing may be taught successfully by hav- 
ing the pupil do right hand writing with a 
pencil, and use the left hand to trace the 
same with pen and ink. Whether writing 
with the right or left band, the relative po- 
sition of the arm. hand, pen and paper is the 
same, and both hands can be readily taught 
to produce the same style of writing. There 
is no longer any issue as to how the pen 
should beheld; the method is the same in 
all reputable schools. By closing the band 
the muscles on the underside of the arm will 
be distended and show what part of the 
forearm should touch the desk. Only the 
polished ivory of the third and fourth fin- 
gers should be the point of contact between 
the hand and paper. 

Learnei-s have imitative and reasoning 
powers. The first enables many to become 
proficient in writing, and may be given free 
exercise by sometimes writing single lines in 
imitation of the copies all the way through 
a book. Special study, reasoning, criticism 
and practice will correct the defects of the 
imiUitive work. 

It should be understood that the arm moves 
the hand, and the combined action of the 
arm, hand and fingers produces the forms 
in writing. 

Movements may frequently be practiced 
with only the point of the pen on the paper, 
next having the ivory of the little fingers 
touch, and then with the forearm brought 
to a light rest. Some of the most rapid writ- 
ers in this country touch only the point of 
the pen to the paper. The action of the 
muscles above the elbow, while the light con- 
tact of the forearm and third and fourth fin- 
gers steady the movements, arc the princi- 
pal agents for fast and graceful writing ; 
their power cannot be too assiduously culti- 
vated for they give endurance to write a great 
number of hours without weariness. 

Correct position of the band and pen may 
be attained, and the habit fixed by making 
i t mandatory to resume correct position every 
time ink is taken. To prevent learners from 
imitating their own writing instead of the 
copies, sometimes have them commence at 
the middle of the page and write the lines 
one above the other, thus keeping the writ- 
ten Hues out of sight and the copy only in 

Everybody should know how to write 
the full and abbreviated styles, both be- 
ing useful in business. The fabric of 
writing should be of clean, smooth lines, 
showing refinement and cultivation of the 
sense of touch, liapid, correct thinking of 
letters and word forms is the parent of rapid, 
graceful cbirography, whether it be long 
or shorthand. Long and shorthand may 
justly be considered homogeneous and 
should both be taught by the one instructor. 

(The speaker illustrated on the board the 
letter m formed from seven lines, and then 
by use of only one line ; he also gave an 
alphabet of self-connecting lines and char- 
acterized it as the only alphabet in the world 
which reduces longhand to the lowest terms 
of brevity, and at the same time is a pmc- 
tical substitute for use in every grade of 
stenographic and phonographic writing.) 

lie wrote words of fifteen strokes in long 
hand and reproduced the same legibly in 
three strokes with the new alphabet ; also 
wrote a sentence having one hundred and 
twenty-.'ieven sirokes, and then in the new 
style with twelve strokes. Mr. Spencer 
stated that : 

This new stenographic material which 
has now come to light to bless the worid 
has been discovered by Mr. Wm, A. Cnmc, 
of New York, which, applied by him to the 
art, has resulted in the creation of an en- 
tirely new shorthand, called Spencergraphie 
Shorthand, or Crane's Script, giving the 
first favorable or scientific method of con- 
nected vowel representation known to the 
history of the art. Tin n.w xhuithand is 
iu two distinct i.l^uI.iIiI Uiaui Ims — anal- 
phabetic and a pii><ii>n. - mJ Ii>x1i)l's sim- 
plifying and coMii.luiiij- ^liuiL writing, is 
short I.I learn, legible, and tmbratcs a style 

fqii;il iu speed to any of the old systems. 
Its simplicity is so great that it is compre- 
hended by children. 

August 17, 1883. is the date that Mr. 
Crane, after years of search, made his basis 
discovery, viz., the imUcidmtUty of the 
ellipge, the use of the ellipse in various sizes 
and directions, and shaded or light, as au 
independent element in shorthand, on an 
equality witli the straight lines and curves, 
not a mere accessory of the latter, and the 
value thereof, together with the related 
hook and the circle, as voicel matn-utl, — and 
be immediately proceeded to erect thereupon 
a system of phonetic shorthand, " I was," 
said Mr. Spencer, " at that time endeivvoring 
to develop an alphabetic shorthand," soon 
after our acquaintance began, and I re- 
quested bim to try the possibilities of bis 
new material on an alphabetic style. After 
e.\-haustive study and careful experiment, 
he has wrought out the first and only really 
practical system of alphabetic shorthand 
ever given to the world. Mr. Crane states 
that without my having arrested his atten- 
tion lo the need of au alphabetic steno- 
graphy, his authorship would probably 
have been confined to the phonetic short- 
hand. The two systems stand unrivalled 
aud comprise the simplest way of rapidly 
writing any language, either by the true 
phonetic or by the alphabetic usage. The 
alphabets of the two are interchangeable so 
far as the noture of the two methods of 
spelling admits, 

Mr. Scberrer~I have found it well to use 
the pen firet. and it may be well to insist on 
its use in studying arithmetic, 

H. A, Spencer — Pupils will seldom be- 
come fatigued when interested. Work 
should he varied so as to avoid monotony. 
I favor resting the hand on the third and 
fourth finger-nails when writing. 

Mrs. Spayze — I have found it well to use 
fli-st the slate pencil, then the lead pencil 
and afterward the pen. This when we 
begin with children five years old. 

II. A. Spencer^I would recommend the 
use of the pen as soon as the pupil begins 
to read. 

Letters were read from W. P. C'onpcr, 
Kiugville, Ohio, M. II. Barringer. of Gales- 
burg. 111., A. .1. Taylor, of Rochester. J. H. 
Atwood, of Ouarga. W. II. Sadler, of Balti- 
more, W. A. Faddis, of Baltimore, C. P, 
Meudes, of Syracuse, H. W. Bryant, of Chi- 
cago, S. R. Eaton, of Toronto, J. G. Cross, 
of Chicago. 

Mr. K, C. Spencer then offered the fol- 
lowing ; 

Hesolved, That a shorthand nnd type- 

of the .18.SUC 

Mrs. Sara A. Spencer — A motto early im- 
pressed upon me was, " When you have 
nothing to say. say nothing." The first step 
in training students in the English or any 
other language should be to stir up ideas. 
Each student is required to write us a letter 
answering or covering, seven points in his 
early history (such as Government depart- 
ments require of applicants for positions). 
These letters I carefully examine as to(l) 
ideas, (2) construction, (3) capitals, (4) punc- 
tuatiou, (5) logic, (6) rhetoric, (7) para- 
graphing, Each of these will form a sec- 
tion of his future training, and lo them will 
be added (8) prosody. (9) exercises in false 
syutax. With your permissiou, I will pro- 
ceed to give the Convention such a practical 
exercise as I give daily to classes. In an- 
swer to dcveloinng questions, the Conven- 
tion furnished the following sentence, con- 
taining all the original elements of the lan- 
guage : 

lilt. A<ij. Comimuud Siibjcft. 

True ! mercantile business and pleasure 
J'red. Flo. & obj. Adv. J»rep, 
occupy US now iu Jacksonville, 
The adjective ward was changed tu a 

Adj. PuiT. 
phrase, of meixhandizing, and to a clause, 

AdJ, ulauae. 
which a merchant pursuea. The method of 
forming compound and complex phrases. 

s and 



English language contains tbirty-six varieties 
of complex elements. 

An answering lesson in versilicalion was 
intermpted by the call of time. Mrs. S. 
makes young people, who are fascinated by 
the lessons in verse-making, practice it for 
amusement only. A steady pursuit of it 
might end in insanity. 

W. E. McCord, of Jacksonville, and A. J. 
Rider, of Trenton, N. J,, followed in re- 
marks upon the same subject. 

Prof. J. B. Tumor, of Jacksonville, being 
present at this session was called out by very 
complimentary remarks from R. C, Spencer, 
and spoke a few minutes, much to the de- 
light and edification of all who heard bim. 
Prof. Turner's remarks were reported in 
full upon the stenograph by M. M. Bar- 
tholomew, and will appear in tbepampliU-t 
report of the proceedings. 

Mr. R. C. Spencer— We come to con 
sider a topic which is receiving the attention 
of the business colleges of this country, aud 
it is providential that we meet in this city, 
since we find here a gentleman who has 
made a valuable contribution to this science, 
one of the patriarchs and founders of educa- 
tional institutions in the great West. And 
we have taken the liberty of requesting him 
to speak to you, and I have the pleasure of 
introducing Dr. J. M. Sturtevant, ex-presi- 
dent of Illinois College. 

Dr. Sturtevant — I thank you for the kind- 
ly invitation to meet you and speak upon a 
subject of which I have thought much and 
with great interest. I am pleased to know 
that it attracts the attention of business col- 
leges as it should that of all other educa- 
tional institutions, since its importance can 
hardly be expressed. Every American 
should be a political economist. Its impor- 
tance is world-wide, and a voter in our re- 
public should understand the one subject 
which underlies all others of importance. 
Aristotle coined the word economics. I de- 
sire to avoid the word political since it seems 
to pertain tp the one country only, while in 
fact, there should be no difference between 
Freuch, American, English or even Chinem 
Gcouomics, though in the latter there has 
been a forced difference. There are two 
views prevalent among those who treat of 
this subject. One class say it is not a sci- 
ence. They merely apply it to the trade 
and manufactures of their owu country, to- 
gether with the labor and currency question, 
etc. In my mind it does nmic as a science 
which is .applicable to the progret^s and ciV' 
ilization of the world. The subject of land 
tenure will soon demand attention. The 
continent of Europe is trembling over a vol- 
cano. They fear dynamite, but do not know 
ii is under Ibeni, The working millions can 
never rest iu the midst of a foolish oppres- 
si ve system. Economists are blind and 
dumb to answer such men as Henry George, 
because if they did they would open the vol- 
cano. Our system is the only on the earth 
which is the true one. and we should appre- 
ciate it as a precious heritage. [Applause.] 

Dr Sturtevaut's remarks were exceedingly 
interesting but too extended to admit of 
being here given iu full. They were reported 
verbatim by Bartholomew on the stenograph. 

Mr, Maybew— We should regard our- 
selves particularly fortunate in being favor- 
ed with the remarks of two such prominent 
gentlemen. I move that a vote of thanks 
be tendered Dr. Sturtevant and that be be 
made an active and honorary member of the 
Association. Carried unanimously. 

After some further discussion of this sub- 
ject by Messrs. McCord. Packard, Mussel- 
man and Brown, tho convention adjourneil. 


was occupied in a discussion of "Business 
College Discipline, "by G. W. Elliott, and 
"Methods of Advertising." by A. II. Ilin- 
man, were the regular topics considered in 
the afternoon. Au "experience meeting" 
then followed in which many of the young- 
er members were called out and responded 
in three minute talks relative to their fields 
of labor and experiences as Business Educa- 
tors. This was a most enjoyable hour, 
many of the new members proving them- 
selves to be ready off-hand speakei-s. Those 
who responded to the call of their names 
were Mes.srs. Stoddard, Bockford, III.; 
llootman, Chicago; Bobbins. Sedalia. Mo ; 
Williams, Iowa City ; Pivuilt. Ft. Worth, 

Texas : Burrow. New Concord. Ohio : 
Winiiiis. Wockford. 111.; Webb, Nashville. 
Teim.; Strile, Bloomflcld. Iowa; Mayer, 
Milwaukee. Wis ; Wilson. (^IiicJtgo ; Houde- 
hii»li, Topcka. Klin ; Slmn , !>< 1 N'-irtr. 
Col,; Howe. Oskaln.iv,, l-a:, Mii^ , liiiaii. 

Oiiinrv. III.: Hjilhin ,i, ,1,:,. Nrh ; 

I.ongrtitli. (iuiiMV, III . lii.-kiii, i'MM-b- 

S. S. Packard introduced iljc subject of 
C'orrespoDdeDce, in wbicb be presented a 
number of letters from eminent persons in 
order to abow tbat most of the rigid rules 
laid down in works on Correspondence and 
tinij,'bt ill tbe schools, were but indifferently 
olwerved. and then insisted upon tbc import- 
ance of observing tlie essf^nlials. viz. ex- 
prcsNiui; Ihc exact 1linuj.'bl of ibt- writing' in 
siiilable words, lie was f..llnwe(l by Air. 
H..-:ir(liis (if yprinrrti'ld. and Mr. Hebe of 
Indinimpolis, botli of whom .iravc cxiict 
methods, and insisted upon iibserviug tbe 

Mr. Hebe, after commenting upon the 
importance of correspondence as a branch 
of business education and tbe proper 
method for its instruction, presented the 
follr)win2: rules as those observed in bis 

Mechanical construction. 

1. Use plain paper and envelopes, etc. 

2. Write but one page unless absolutely 

a. Fold and direct properly, 
4. Write legibly and gracefully. 
T). Spell correctly. 
I}. Punctuate carefully. 

1. Date your letter and give place of 

2. Address tbe person or firm by name 
and i)lace. 

3. Use honorary terms sparingly. Plain 
Mr, Madame, Gentlemen, etc., are sufli- 

0. Be brief but explicit. 
7. Do not say " in haste" or " this letter 
has been delayed by pressure of business," 

1 'ami" and "but." 
to be plain and avoid all efforts 
or elegance, eitlier in penman- 
ship or language. 
In answering letters. 
1. Acknowledge the receipt of tbc lettei, 

a. Answer the questions asked or refer- 
ence made by the writer. 

3. Refer to your own affairs only after 
answering matters presented by the writer. 

4. Do not mix private matters with busi- 

Correspoudence in all its various forms, 
when practically considered, is conceded to 
be the most important of all kinds of com- 
position. It is a practical exercise in Eng- 
lish composiiion, and should form an im- 
})orUint factor in the commercinl education 
of sludeuls. 

A kuowledge of En-lj-l, . :.nni,, ,, ,- ,1,. 

solutely ueccssiu'y i" H i .i i; i ■ i -i 

graceful and correct si \ !■ , , ! i,,,. 

''|'\V' '■■ ' n Is, and develops the 
P'li" ■ '' I I common to all lan- 

.""'-' ' ' '■'■ -^pecinl attention in 

in a busiucs^ 1 ..' . '. ;i., i; c spencer 

followed by 'III. . I llill I H FdKui' 

n. A. Spencer ami HiLskins. The debate 

was interesting and aroused enthusiasm. 

and applause was given the impassioned 
f..ilur.s of ibe .peaking. 

'1 I 1 -(> \ , ^[..|:■, I-.,. — r£NMAN's SECTION. 

pencil of medium hardness should be used, 
such lines being made as delicately as pos- 
sible tbat they may be readily removed with 
rubber after tbe work is completed. If 
script is to be prcimnil, Ifif niJcd liiirs iii!iy 




graphing is, thul b; phi 
lines are in relief, by pboto-lithugraphy tbc 
transfer is upon the surface of stone, and 
can he printed only upon a lithographic 
press ; this latter process is employed in 
printing pictures, diplomas and other i^riuts 
not desired in large numbers. 

In the preparation of India ink wc use 
porcelain or slate trays, inclined, with a 
small well at the end, "fJn tins inrlincd siir- 

from the pen as any of the so-called black 
inks. Prepared liquid India ink as sold, is 
good for many purposes when used with a 
medium coarse pen. 

" In the course of our work, we use Gil- 
lot's :iO:} lull .\ n Liular drafting pen for 
rulin'j- , S|ii iircriiiii .\riisiicaud No. 1 pens. 
AmcN' i'liiiiiiii - riivMrite. a set of Son- 
necluii. i-i i.Kl |ii!;i. il pens, and a double- 
pointed ^lI ul ibruL.' 

I). L. jMu.'Jselinan, of Quincy, gave an ex- 

Mr. rtathbun— I think it well to follow 
out some prescribed plan in any event. To 
help tbe little finger glide over the surface 
when resting the hand, I wind a piece of 
paper around it and fasten it with mucilage. 

Prof- Mus*clman — I don't wriie a purely 
inii^cidar ninvfmeiit Endeavor to train the 
shii]< iiiv lo hold llic pen in a position which 
,:iuM ^ ilir- l.:i-i l:Lii-iK' When fulurc teftcli- 
tr- ;iir iM i.r r.iirjhi Hi- \ -liould be drilled in 
;di kinds of u.irk, ,,,;.! to writi- as 
nearly perfect u.^ po- ii]. M_\ hi. uiwj: m 
the normal depaiiin. i . . j . : ; .1 ;. : 
from that in the bu 

Mr. Ames — I dmi i i i....'. ..i .i i- iiim:im ..i 
repute who prole>*c> in jkU-i-i mti^ttiUit 
movement, simou pure. 

to the ordinary convei-sation of pupils, who 
stand highest "in the grammar class of four- 
fifths of the schools throughout thecountrj'. 
to prove this assertion. They can analyze, 
parse, or diagmm correctly, but when it 
comes to constructing a sentence from thoir 
own brain, it is done, if at all, with the 
greatest difficulty, I desire to have it dis- 
tinctly understood lint 1 reler li. ■/nuiimar 
'" has been iiiiil --liil i- -micilh hniuht. 

If -v 

shall find I 

< omparable to that which enables 
ess our thoughts with appropriate 
^ liiit flic school children of this 

The .«e 
spectini: * 
Pupils n. 
by C. H:i> 


ilb disci 

circumstances, suitable preparation cannot 
he made before the age of 15 or 16 years, 
which will indicate the miiiinuini age al 

which pupils Sbonld .'Hl.'i n| :i l.u-iiii-- 

Bi it ifigrE:bL|| u.ndErstQDid thitr 

/;... ./,./,, 

/'/, //^ V^/r,,,/^,/ r/_ 


ilullUtlU'SrtlUljm'Df ,;^ /2 .jr,<^/ 


^ pho(o-tit!Jiai'cd from pen-and-ink coj)y, 
of artistic peninamMp a 

vied at the office of the J 
'.ed to coifimercixl purposes. 

liminary education should be obtjiincfl, -nt'l 
if the work was well done there. ].n] .- 
would come well qualified for a liu-;; 

course. It was, however, a fact In ]»■ 

that many pupils do come to tbe busnM - 

, colleges poorly prepared. In such cases. 

I however, we must supplement their defi- 

I it will take its proper plai 
mnn Plnfrlish branches. 

i among the coin- 
'he art of speech, 
'i"ii. is infinitely 
<"eupy the Aral 
' ! nice among all 

ci.-raver. l 
skniful pi-n.n 

gmpbicim-ee--. , , ii.ii.ii.; e.ucuted pcn- 
.imi-ink design in;,y^ ju ,, f^,„ iiours, and at 
irittiug cost, be transformed to a relief-plate 
and be used like wood engraving or type 
upon a couimou press, or be transferred to 
stone and jirmted a.-* by lithography. 

"In preparing designs for reproduction 
by; processes, care should be taken, 
Isl, i o procure pap;-r on Bristol board hav- 
ing a l.anl. sm,>oth s„rf.,ce -,'.1 A tine 


against llie ln,,t <>{ llie n;ld oil llie -.e. nmi, 1 

separate the secoud and third fin-rers but 
part way, 

Mr. Ames— I have taught my pupils to 
rest the hand upon the nails of the third and 
fourth fingers, which I think preferable, as 
the nnils are hard and smooth and glide over 
the surface of the paper easily. 

Mr. C. T. Smith— I think it well at the 
licirinnin!r tn practice the student on muscu- 
lar niov.-rnF lit. as the fingers will be brought 

I'lof. -Mus^elnian—When about to write 
on the b(j;ird, lust clcuu il thoroughly; lay 

faitiifulK L.u.M i;.j. ....i,.,i i- i ,,.,im,i,,ii 
We call 11 Hit ,iii i.i ■[.. ,,Uui_ .L/i.t *,i-iiii.^ 
with propriety. Is it not railur the science 
of resolving senteucis inlu their component 
parta? Instead of laiildin:: Mtitences it 
analyzes them. It In arv the sunn relation 
to langua-. II, ii :i . II. Mil t .|... - I.. ;, liottle 

of palelil I ■ ! I |Mise3 to 

resolve int.. ii . .; , , i. , ni., go 

far as teinliini: iIm ,iii ■■{ ■<,•< iknm and 
writing lull III Iji is LOJKtfiiied. JJ1 one of 
the grandest failures of modern limes. It 
is only necessary to listen a few moments 

■ pulilic schools ibroughout the 
• i be aroused upon this subject. 
atTord to wait another generation 
s important cluinge is brought 

A p. 

And right here lies ibe secret" 
of successful mastery of the English Ian 
guage. He who would master the art of 
oral speech must keep speiikiiig. "Speech 
is reason's brother, and a kingly perogative 
of man, that likeueth him to his Alakcr, who 
spake, and it was done." 

It is also true that he who would master 
the art of written language must keej) writ- 
ing. There is no other road equally royal 
and equally loyal. 


:'-^i=s:^ "-^8^^-^ 

" The pen of tbe ready writer, wbereunio 
sliall it be tikencil ;" 

" The merchant coiisulereth il well, n.s a 
ship freighted with wares;" 

"Thedevine holdelh it a mirade, giving 
iiltcmnce to the dumb ; " 

■*To read with profit is of tare, but to 
write aptly is of practice ; " 

" No talent among men bits raore scholars 

And why V Simply from the lack of care- 
fid iiractiec guided by competent instructors. 
Voii may ask, why so mnrh ndo about this 
subject of oml and wnli<Ti fnini'""!"'"! ^ 
Wlial hasit todo with -.1-^ 'i-. n,- ^Muni; 
for the active duties ..i i i . I mi- 

utilityaud true culture. 

Aud now what shall we as business educa- 
ill. it V Sliiill we wait for the eomnion 

lo Mrs. Si)encer, of 
ending part she hm 
urk. Let it go for- 

should be i:iii_ !■: ' 

1 i_ words from 

the speller ;.n.; ■ 

_ ' iikuces from 

them, iiiid lie \\-. .Ill 

1 . iiKi p.ipds spec- 

iallv in rendinu urili 

'_', ;U! ;ucomplishment 

very important bul n 

ucb neglected. 

Mr. Packanl~The 

matter of proper (ituili- 

liciitionlsdimcuil to 

liri.le. We can often 

supply the l;ii K "f lli 

pii|>il who presents 

l.obef|ualilir,l .i. ■!„ 

l.i> iiii liiuguage, as 

" 'i ' '111- position is 

teacliiiis. A\ 1 

!i fail to pass 

tlur re;;ular i \ - 

i : ^M can often 

do for them w ■ : 

i , , i:iiicd lo ac- 

com|)lish. \\ 1 ^^ 1 

1' i iiMiiint scholars 

whom we cau impiov 

I- ;iiii! iii:ikc wiwe. We 

are missionaries in tl 

s ;,^reat work It is 

our place to siipiiiv t 

ose who lack. Let it 

are prepared to till a 

"'■'■■'' "■ ■"■ ■■'■■'' ■'" " 

when applied to let us 

biiiiL . . . .1 1 :j years old, who has 
ncji V I 11' "iduMiv education, we advise 
him Id yu luuifer to the public school. 
Where tliere are good public schools, lis in 
Canada, the business college needs no Eng- 
lish dc|iarlment. 

Mrs. Swayzc— I take into my class the 
boys who are suspended from the public 
schools who are unable to keep up with 
their (I;isM-i, lu a few months I can teach 
my pii].;!- rm_ni:i -. cnmposition and math- 
ctiiiih. ■ ■! '.. I . ■;v\- double entry book- 


e.\inifi..ii,il j\l,.iiv ul my siiulent-S have 
been eldurly uitu whose time was precious 
aud who had had few advantages. I have 
also bad many who could not pass master in 
the public schools. Some of these have 
been like chickens in u shell, picking about 
for a place to yet out, aud when out made 
rinite lively birds. 

Atthisiminl llic v.-iH-nilile Mr. Bnrtlett. 
the pioneer ol' I.., .n,. - . ..lli ^^i - in liir . miri- 

liberallv cdunitcd un-u 

and not because thevm 

Mr. Turncr-I have < 

e and am i;lad of it. They are 

great words. All science is only common 
sense applied to the powei-s of being. The 
eternal wisdom of the Citator is common 
sense applied to the infinite and eternal well 
being of His creatures. Thir 

Mr, Cochnin — I had charge of a com- 

nercial department of a public school some 

ears ago. In this we had both grad- 

s of the high school, and intermediate 

E. R. Folton lead a discussion on ' 
pnri:ili<»n," whi(!h was of unusual i 

I i\|in"n| ihismorninga little 
In. . I \ ill our profession sli' 

;'ii ii I I i (Ihss work, and I anist 

■-iM|iiiM(l ili.'ii they should adve 

they know so linir lit" it 'i'ln' L.iIm 
road employs Hio.iinii p.t-Mii- I h 
infendent cnmmiuiii^ .i i\>\-r --iImn 



mid do 

question of system is best decided in tlie se- 
lection of a teacher. In making this selec- 
tion you should find a man or woman who 
has used pnictically some one of the phon- 
ographic systems. I say })hojwgraphic sys- 
tems, as distinguished from any others 
that may claim to be shorter and easier. 
Avoid the enthusiast who has a new system 
of sborth^mcl Aviiich c;ni be learned in an in- 
rn'ilili!\ -h..'! nil,, i-iiic from the fact 

f-. hr ilirr iMii In inr I l.i 1 1 iTiug promiscs of 
hutjh s>.^l^;lil.■'. ki till* ,(:-'ure yon that there 
is no money in them, and this fact alone 
ought to settle the question. 

A good shorthand teacher should be fa 
miliar with all the pboim-mpliic systems, 
and with -II. Il iiil..rni.iih.n il.' ..w-h't to be 

iililel ■.. I. . :ni- after 

sliorllMi,.! ; M .,.,!: . . I , I, M, wb^■b 

lie i'';i''lir I II -I !!■ I . III. I also be 

nil!'' I I ■■■■ ■ II.. ;■■.!■ ' .Ml.. I . I. already 

1 talk 

them information couceruing blanks and 
manner of businees. 

Many ditlicultics beset the learner. No 
official can tell about the work of the other 
and all must be visited. Let us be careful 
to do business properly. I once had a busi 
ness college way bill of a car load of grain 
with 10,000 bushels." 

Mr. R. C. Spencer— That must have 
been a new kind of car. 

Mr. Felton— There are various ways of 
running' a laitroad. Pome construct the 
road ati'l ..wn tlir r.illin- ^i.k'Ic. Others 

-n. (If I 

iisiuess I 

send nut -.".rl- !( 

I'll- II. wi In return 

Now wh,.l. du u, .1 

... , iiiis stnte 

ofatfaiisV I ill II 

tHEx tobill 

to my door, tlim; 

' ' 1 w them at 

my door, but on 

i..„<l. Now 

I want yon nun i. 

il. 1 ■ M .III 'leveland. 

bywayol T.ili-.l-. , 

Ml- \"Hi .1, and our 

agent \mII m iivn i 

V uiiiiil- aihl forward 

them, aiiJ ii III.. iMi 

i>l thr iimntli we will 

renderaii :,.<■ i ,i. 

t '■^ • -II. vl bis share 

road thcn^rw /"' 

mind tbeexpen-i ' 

1 '1 ■ each, its 

length, etc., :in.l ■. . 

■i- (.i>.|„., proportion 

accortliii-lv \\ 1 

II I.I l-'iitsburgh and 

there 1-1 ■■ -i.l '.. Il 

beiii- II' . II. 1 ■. ..1 . 

' Il -^trition and collect- 

Ml 11 I -L[>1 - 1 liL gentleman should 
publish the n-siili-- of bis researches aud we 
will CO operate with him to the fullest ex- 
tent in the work. 

Mr. liogeis, of Hoclie<ler— An attempt 
■■ ' I" . -t , :i -i -I,. HI of rail- 

practicjit shape. 

I but 

II.. . h til which 

plication to busincs 

I Iivi.r II 

muuication plan. 

tiles the 

natural place forth 

hi .|ii 1 -iij.ij 

■ - 111- -uccessof 

Government and 

1 . i.n' w.H - 

1 the school. 

i: " Whi^^ sys- 
I could convince 

teUigeueeiniil -u -.^^ 
do it with .mini- 

'''.' l'.' 

n's IS the best ; 

more could uaH i, 

.| Ill 1 1 

a nr-w and revis- 

There would be tin 

1 i.-\iiiiiiiiaLiu 

ail. ''iif I assure 

This is, in an em 

.'1 -I'.niivincing 

Course of Study." 

It is compi 

Mv I. ill ^ -1 pi, h, t|„- \huisonbut 
have il teiK her wlio uses the Ben Pitman 
modified by Brown. 

Mr. Winans — I have no hobby but pre- 
fer the system of Grahiim I don't cjill it 
especially better Iml lii-n].. il lias many 
points. It is moil . ; ,1 ! ' ii m mmv. I'f 
a man can carry il . I ■ 1 • , 1 ii'isthe 

best on earth. Ii h - i>,.i,: >ii,rns. it 

has a dictionary ul i.u,i;Uu i\..iii.-- ,tyd 00,000 

When a man wants to get the shortest 
form for a word or phrase this is useful. 

Mr. Graham has labored long to get a 
standard. Most systems have been changed 
— wliicb makes trouble. If a reporter takes 
' ' standard nninncr, it need not 


1 be\ 

Not I 

.iiiii Iradc, 4,:.(l(l,- 
II e, iuall 18,.~)00,- 
[ copulation, now 

of C 


is engaged in, or siippoiied by the strictly 
industrial or business pursuits. We are a 
business people. The education wliich the 
great mass of our people need is a practical 
busines-i crliH^tfion i^'ntope. witli a terri- 
tory ne.nK I Ill .,i.;,i.- miles lees than 

,000 people. We 

shall I 

pulutiou in this 

nil lit should 

bnsines- ,1 

I'-aily ofthis 


ugh here to 

mean '! >\\:i 

put it into 

course whieli 

to mean som 

educating fn 

cordinffto the education and ability of the 
pupil. Written examinations sbouhl follow. 
The branches of the second division should 
be as follows : 

r S|»clling (completed). 
Eng. Language (completed. 
Business Arillimetic (ci 
IJusines,* Penmanship. 
nonk-k"ppin'j-, prr»<'!tea 


About the same lini, li .| 1. 1 i ui here 

as in the first diviMon .it ih. ...nisr. and 
should be followed by written exainiimlioiis. 
The work in the third, or finishing divi- 
sion, I would arrange as follows : 

f liook-keeping — Applied to 
I special lines of business, as 
1 Iteiail, Wholesale, Farm- 
Uonunission, Banking, 
with necessary forms 

;id Division, 
Ollice Dept. 

Commercial Law. 

Civil Government. 

Political Economy. 
The book-keeping in this division, regu- 
lated so as to give ample time to the other 
branches, shouid he altoicct.her special in 
character and made to rover ibe widest ap- 


and arranged with system. It is all prai 
tical. It is calculated to imparl valuable 
information, skill the band, aud train the 
mental powers. It contains nothing not 
highly important and useful to any average 
citizen of our great Republic. 

dard method of book-keeping, a record of 
business proceedings. My tirst innovation 
is to dispense with the journal. Tliere is no 
living man who couhi make any sense out 
of one The three-column journal is good. 
The leftculuniiieimtainsall the debits and 

lii ■' ■ ■■'■■■■ ■: 111 the 

book directly. This is in quiie general use. 
This furnishes the means of subdividing the 
work. There are no objections to it when a 
man understands arithmetic and is correct. 
If one man keeps the invoice and another 
the sales book, each insists his work is cor- 
rect when something is out of shape. 

Mr. Duff of Pittsburgh, Fa., published 
the six column journal many years ago, 
though it was published 300 years before this 
country was discovered. The method of 
posting from this saves much vahnible time. 

; this 

>. u are indicated 
" totbeliQe. A 1 
• a word formed, 

arbilrarv niai I. 
ly all .ilber ■ 
taught pu]iil I 

*'| ' I ■ t Cbieago, sent his 

'-" ' ' lo be present to take 

pail 111 I III .|,., ii--i,.ii iiiji sent what he had 

During the discussicm on the subject of 
shorthand, lost Saturday, the (juestion was 
asked. " Whatsystem of shorthand shall we 
teach f Having accepted the inevitable, 
that shorthand must be taught as an im- 
portant branch in the business college, the 

When the public school 
irk 1*01- all, then we shall 

■lii.r Kii^li.vhilciiartmento 

nds, also, Is com- 
)! preparing the 

I an. I would begin with the foUowiu" 


1st Division. (Spelling. 

jj^ J Eng. Language. 

Dept. of Theory. | B""!"^'* Arithmetic. 

■' L Uusiness Penmanship. 
Book-keeping—Theory, with lessons in bus- 
iness forms and correspond- 

Pupils should remain in Tlii« ,lf.p,i, tnieni 

until the theorj''of 1 |.. i,...- -j \~. i„,i.^f. ,-■<!, 

andacertaingfadri ■ 1 ,n. in- 

In writing, I wotiM 1 1 . , ■ ■ i. 1 1.11,1 

ishing, for wliicb U ],i:;,J [^,^ - ,h. n Iv ill llie 

first place — and afterward still more dearly 

for gain. Into these we may intiodiue the 
expenses of the concern as well as its gains. 
The difference between the footings of the 
columns will ofleu show the condition of 
ila ' '11' 1 I II \' \i i iK, I ten column jour- 

11.'' I ''■ .■■ .■ i II \ .accountsot the 

i 1,1. 1. leeeivable, and 

'III '■ ■ i!i ' -I" I ■ 'Idle we may dis- 
hes luni gains. This method may 
; I'lid to almost any business. Add 
I . eolumu.s aud nearly any business 
11' M a. lily be covered. 
I do not wish to go on record as advocat- 
ing indiscriminately all kinds of column 
journals. 1 do not believe in them without 
u proper classification and gmnd central 
debit and credit columns. One pioneer in 
the work thinks the system is too complica- 

ted ; another 

nple ; another that 
ork to do. Great sjw- 
'Mtd Ttiiiptntion is re- 
' -lie the propretor 
'it stands. Many 

reached t 

and joiMi 

.1 ,,i ,h.,i.,. By 

lie pinii.iiMtyof 
iiusposiu^' the Iigures of a numlter. Long 

tlR' fjish iKwk should be wrilteu. Why do 
wc wrilc ihc cash book ? Il is for the pro- 
U-ction of the cashier, iis a clicck upon him- 
wit. and enables him to prevent and detect 
tTr(>ps, I write no auxiliary books, only 
triosc rliMt lire £ood in the court. I would 
usr Ihc Iiitl honk in the same way, not hay- 
iiit: l>inH rt'ccivnlilc and payable accounts in 
Mil- k-diicT. In the c-iisc nf p;irr;;it p:iynipnls 
1 Imven bill book wbirli itnrN <\u- .h-uvAtu] 
I rctiuirc Ihc students in n^aki- <lii].liiiit.> il.- 
p..Ml Slips, nnd 1..1 


ink hi 

t those that :t 

be tausht in n cullcjjc. w.-slHuikl inlojit on. 
combining tliu most improvements. Then 
:ire beticr systems than have yet been con 

(1 by llic 

InitJa the 
■1). Th,- 
licr Ihitul. 

. iinrtUolomcw — That improvement is 
o Ilic stenograph. (Laughter.) 

r:ii iviird — —I would like to ask 

!i>"A iii.iin wnrds per minute you 

: in the arriuigemcnt, folding, super- 
1 and stamp, manual dexterity in the 
nf Hi... ,nid -rare i.i.d nMmlity of 

without betraying au utter ignorance of 
grammar, orthography and general literary 

Adult writing is llu- outirrowth of years of 
practice and habit, mi., vvlilrh \\:\< been lie 
come incorponiini i ini) . 1 1. - pFr-.onal pe- 
culinrities whiili <• ^w. r ^ n 

?iation, was much enjoyed. The i 
1 by Miss Gilbert, of Jacksonville, 
ieally rendered and much enjoyed. 


•zh i 


ided by those who would seek to sudden- 
ly alter or disguise their writing. It is 
i|'iitc obvious that an bubitii^i! |>i< ulidrily 
tli:ii 18 unnoticed cannot bi' -li-|i! n-iii \viili 
go around 


A. U. Hinman. of Worcester, Mass.. 
opened the session upon "The Ornate in 
Penmanship," Re presented his subject in 

:t innvt ititcri-liti'j- :tnil ctTcetive manner. 

I If- 1.1 1. M I iiIm- ti^ were made rap- 

! : ' ! _' ' 1m of excellence. 
I . - I \pect to give his 

1 ,11. ill lull uiii, i'lu-i; iiiuns. After Mr. 
Hinman closed a discUi^sion followed. 

Mr. Ames — Mr. Hinman has developed 
two or three principles which contain the 
erouud work of fine penmanship, and bav- 

certain class of persons who seem lo think, 
that it is the greatest element of greatness to 
never change their minds. I think it was 
Emerson who said, that "inconsistency 
is the bug-bear of little minds." This is 
surely true, for the conscientious, progres- 
sivi' e,inii'«( iiiiiii in any station of life, 
iilnnr. Ill [|i. I ., I iii!it he does change his 
niiiii II ■■- ' |iceted. nor will it proba- 
lil\ . 1,1 :i i' liny of us will go home 

ndi=rovcrpd bote 

of the 

i,v iiubibc 
'C hardly 



.1.1 i:' I'lii-^s personal pecu- 

, ,111 . '1.. ■. ir , . 1. 1 Miir.l. even if his own p. i'nIi II iii, - i niilii be avoided. 

ll isoii this principle that scientific exam- 
nation of the handwriting is usually con- 

In courts of justice handwriting is brought 


■ Ihu. 

nile> lliJ 

a skilled disc. n 
upon the board i 
his methods, am; 
and photo-lithog 

Mr. Hinman — We may devote a part of 
the time to flourishing, especially when it is 
desired by the pupil, but never to the detri- 
ment of the regular work. Indeed it may 
be out of place in a busine-ss college- 
Mr. Musselman — It should be separated 
from ordinary work. If done, it should be 
in a ditferent department. The two classes 
of writing do not belong together. 

Mr. Hinman — I wish this matter might bo 
made known to the world, through the Pen- 
man's Aht JOUIIKAI-. 

Ml-. Chicken here read a very able and in- 
teresting paper on this subject, from Field- 
ins Schofleld, of Quincy. 111., who was un- 
able to be present through ill health. In a 
I future issue of the Journal this paper will 

1 tject 

twecdie dec and Iweedic dum. .Some of the 
most vital points arc covered up and lost 
sight of in the discus.sion of some little, 
trivial things that do not amount to any- 

esting and important cases in which be had 
given testimony as an expert. 

By way of illustration of how genuine 
writing is distinguished from simulated or 
forged, Mr. M. P. Ayera was invited to 
write his autograph upon the blackboard 
and Mr. Brown invited to copy it. When 
Mr. Ames went through with an ainilysis 
and comparison of thr l^^'. ivniiun -^, 
pointing out where the ^iiii i . I ' . i. I f 
having the chnrar 
showinjr where the 

be l)anished f i 
der succeed in 
referred to inch 
whioh aii 

bimd Oneisli 



Association. Richard :Ncltiou. of C'iuciu- 
uali, and Dr. W. M. Carpenter, of St. 
Louis, two other well-known veterans in 
bu.«ine.'«s college work, also arrived during 
the day. 


As previously announced, the reception to 
the educators at the Y. M. C. A. building 
occurred at 8 p. m. An immense company 
of people gathered to meet the visitoni, and 
a very enjoyable time was had. Good music 

\v:is .supplied by ladies and g. nlleiiieli of llie 

I The remarks by IL ' D. Ruisell^ kstj., of | 
Minneapolis, formerly a member of this 


by ti're,'sn,J „'.',, I'rliil ,i,. .imJ. ,i!'ninl- a 

crucial tesi from whieb il will eume forth 
triumphant. The discipline it affords is in- 


After some miscellaneous business, Mr. 
A. S. Osborne spoke upon the subject of 


The following is a verlmtim report by M. 
M. Bartholomew, on the stenograph : 

"In regard to the fjuestion of methods I think 
that it may be truthfully said that the ear- 
nest teacher has no fixed methods. I was 
very deeply impressed with the beautiful 
manner in which this thought, contained in 
the dedication to a certain book which many 
of you have seen. The line was substan- 
tially as follows : ' To the teachers who 
are never satisfied with their work.' I re- 
repeat that the earnest teacher at all times 
has under discussion bis own methods, and 
any teaelier who s^ys that he bos, for twen- 
u i!'. . -,. .1 -, I I'l II |.iji -inriL: !i certain method 
i 1! to the criticism 

I III- ivMi I. i,[ h ,,< iiiii'j is of such impor- 
lauee that wc cannot atiord to be 
and imaittl on doing and sayinir n 
lost year, simply because we did 

111 teaching. I tiTto determin , ..^ 

step whether what I say to my class is going 
to be of any benefit to them. I try to put 
myself in tliiir jiluce. as some one here has 

i.s. of course, danger of teachers of penman- 
ship trying to magnify this subject, and in 
so doing lose sight of the essentials by dcal- 

we happen 
jeet. that n 

I whether 
I 1 will 

time, as ilicy will il iliis method js loliowed, 
yini will iiuve exhausted your subject ; 
you will have nothing more to talk itbout, 

be <itit of inutcriul, but wo liuvc found ibitt 
tliis c)I)je<-tiou is not a viilid <iiiu 

I t;ikt' particutar pnin- I" -■<\ i- mh li- 

liir-c"siiI.jVrl ; tb.U Hn: i. i 

siciKly Uiirildii^' of wl. m ■ ■ ■ ., 

Dmi. upon u pliilosn,,!,. ■: : i 

rlR. sul.JLrl. TlH' 1 ,..l ■'..■. i- a 

U-:.du-r of pcmncii.slHr - '^ ■ ■ . ' '^ ' ^' ' ^ "^ 

uiid keep tliL-BU I 

iiiid k'gihl.- I.^in.l uii II .iNMlMiini- :,ii Ilif 

art. wiUi wliidi wr l,ii\r ,u,\tliinL' !<. do 
in our work. Lei llic wrilini,' lie pliiin, 
simple Hucl capable of rapid execution. We 
viiu and should secure a good practical 
iiaiid. In our college we give forty-five 
minutes to lbi» subject, as a regular lesson. 
Fnmi thirty minutes to :iu hour, at k'ust. 
should be devoted to the subject of writing 
eiicli dav, during the enrirp etuirse. 

Mr. liinman— Tcacb.-v^-li.uilci .-..Hsirmtlv 

oversee the work of iliii i il in.l . :iJI 

attention to errors, all H' i ini. di. 
day us well asdurini: ili' : i i i A 
single lesson a day <•!' \\~< It i- im.i nn.ii'jti 
without other instruction us indicalcd- 

Mr. Gallagher— 1 am glad to see the ten- 
dency to teach a more simplified style of 
l>enmansbip. We instruct our pupils iu a 
plain business hnnd, drviMt! of ;ill tl,.iii-i-.h, - 


phlin. WedisrMiini^r mi 

part uf our -^tiiilriii- d. I 

space, ou oi-diicn \ mi. 

Wepny verv linh .m, m 

rules of spaciirj, l"i l...| 

letters. Wl- '<-< . m. l ■,■! 

I have fonml ' i . 1 ;. ■ 

good busiui-^ |>. , 1 

Since we \\:\\ '■ mi-i'i. 

plain, but fiL-i.- wiiini-. 

school in the tbtimaiinn 

and has enabled our slmin 

more readily. We ic, 

movement combined with 

lin' !niv;uiii and 

occupy nn hour each day 

u the iuslruction 

of writing. 

Mr. Chicken— It baa 

been commonly 

understood thai we seolU* 

decent copy- Wi .Injini 

liefore the stinirin-- nn.l . 

il. We first wiiir ;i ■■,.. .1 

■. . :|.. 1 . ■ .[ 

We write tlic n. ^^ .i:.i. ■ 

. .■ ■ 1 .: ,.,| 

practical CO]. V [■ r, ;■ 

slautaud ottui ■■■;■ ■ .■ : 

■1 ■ W , ,|.. 

of thesmall l^'..' ^ w ■ '. , ■'■ _'.;' 
by students w in. h I phn.k i- ,- -...,,1 i : 
business purposes :is c'aii he done bv iin\ 
member of the convention. Wc have shi 
detits who eomc to us fjiirly good writeis ;i! 
the start. These we guard in the matters ol 
si)ace. slant and tone up in ibe way of spt' .1 
and legibility. Some students are indilb ; 
ent because they have failed eisewhn. 
Ourcopies are practical and made wiib ;i 
.■oarse pen. 

Mr. Barilett— To make a good writer 
the student should use a uniform system of 
capitals and small letters, and be rcijuircd to 
write it several times a day as well as be can 

^\ ' ' ' - ^ iiinasium at our school 

ami iiiM III . 1" M.ijr,-d teacher who gives 
two hssons „ day — all the students 
taking at least one lesson a day. I found 
better work in the school within three days, 
and withtQ a mouth one third more was ac- 

Spcakiri'' of how we should lake care of 
ourselves. I was reminded of the loose man- 
ner iu which farm niachincrv u^ed to be 

nienl wliicli slood by him and did i:ood 
-service many times as long as the other." So 
if we fail to properly care for our bod- 
ies, they will soon be cast aside as worth- 

We don't take the necessary physical ex- 
ercise, ami use our minds loo much and 
our bodies loo little. 

Mr. Uider's remarks were slrikinHv en- 
d.>rse<lby Jlr. Ilaskiu. 

The association iheu went into executive 
session for the purpose of election of offi- 
(LTs ami transacting other business. 

Tin- following oliiceis fur the eusin'ng 

President— lion. A. J. Rider, Trenton. 

Vice-Presidents — G. W. Brown, Jacksoo- 
ville. III.; E. U. Felton, Cleveland, Ohio; 
It. Iv <;:ill:i;;her. Hamilton, Canada. 

^ . I. I .n iiid Treasurer- A. S. Osborne, 
i; ■■, V. 

I * ommittec— S. S. Packard, 

\' ^\ 1 li, t ilv ; D. T. Ames. New York 
t in . L 1'. Gardner, Poughkeepsie, New 

An iuterinission of an hour was then 

The iif'\i plHi' '.; meeting was then dis- 
cussed I i_Mii ^l^ilillion3 came from 

Sprinuh' I'l, Mill,, Miiwiiukee, Wis., New 
York ciiv. \liMu,,:i, I'l... and St. Paul. 
Minn ^r^^ 1 m, k lil\ \v;is si-llk-d upon as 

Ihr [.l.i.r in uliJ<ll In hnl.l llir KU'l'tin- of 

I.SMl A Ml llniiiks u:is cvtended to 
llie -eiillenirnuln. innl i.iviled llie Associa- 
tion tO UU'et ne.\t year in their respective 

Letters of regret were read from a large 
number of members who were unable to at- 
tend the meeting. 

Mr. Packard was requested to assist Mr. 
Ames in editing and publishing the pro- 
ceedings of the meeting. 

The committee on resolutions reported : 

Hesolutious nt l, ,;,l - [.. I'i.i K, T. IJul- 
lard. the Yoiinj \i. ' i. ix, .Vssocia 
tion. Rev. A, i; m. . l> h md to the 
..mccrs of tlin -. w r ,1 I nhnniis for their 
-rnerous it.IucIlou ol tare, which were 
luniriiTunusly adopted, and the conventiou 
;i.iii>uiLieil hi meet in New York at such 
linn iutd place as the executive committee 
sliuU designate. The JacksonoUle Daili/ 
Jminuil speaks of the convention ns fol- 
lows : 

"In parting from the gentlemen of the 
A.ssneialion we take great pleasure in tes- 
iii\iiij (•' III'- uniform courtesy wc have re- 
!• I Ili' I lands of the entire body. We 
Ml '!■ : il.r work of reporliug the pro- 
■ ■ ■ I ■ ■ I liii' i-onvcnlion with much hesi- 

t Jacksonville with i 

■ilirocatcd by all who attended the 

>. C, Freaideut of 
oon forget the gen- 
3 wLlle Iu Jacksun- 

lople for the uiaiiy 

'usly elected ; 

ilislliiKulslicd body. 

Ames's Guide. 

If you desire to have the very best aid to 
self-improvement in i>ractical and artistic 
penmanship, scud seventy-flve cents for 
Ames's "Guide to Self -Instruction in Prac- 
tical and Artistic Penmanship" (in paper 
covers), or $1 for same nicely bound in thick 
covers. It tells you all about writiug, flour- 
ishing and lettering, and how to learn. If 
you are not pleased with il you may return it, 
and we will refund the cash by return mail. 

Tell your friends, and tell them to tell 
everybody, that if they are in any way in- 
terested in good ^vriting, the best investment 
Uiey can make is to scud $1 aud get the 
Pisnuak's Akt Journal one year and a 
splendid " Guide to Self-Instruction in Prac- 
tical and .Artistic Penmanship," worth $1, as 

ng Lesson No. X. 

In the following examples, Prof. Little 
gives one of the most interesting of his scries 
of sketches, and we trust it will add not 
only to amusement, but will advance many of 
our readers in the interesting study and prac- 
tice of free-band drawing. The sketches 
are to be copied free hand with chulk, upon 


the blackboard, or with pencil upon slate or 
paper. After the head of the little animal 
has been drawn, it will be observed that the 
position of the body is readily made tw nssume 
a variety of positions by a very slight change 
in the outline. This lesson illustrates very 
forcibly the power of a few lines in art when 
made by a master. 

Ames' Compendium of Practical 

and Artistic Penmanship. 

This work, ivs its title implies, is a com- 
plete e.xempliflcation of the penman's art. 
in every department. It consists of seventy- 
two 11x14 inch plates, giving instruction 
and copies for plain writing, flourishing, 
lettering, and designing of every kind of 
artistic pen-work. It hasforty two dilTcreni 
standard and ornate alphabets, and a large 
variety of engrossed memorials, resolutions, 
certificates, diplomas, headings, title pages, 
etc., etc. We are confident that this^ork 
presents to the penman or artist a greater 
and more useful variety of pen-work than 
any oilier work upon penmanship ever 
before published. Price by mail lately re- 
duced from $5.00 to $3.50, at which price 
it is the cheapest book of its si/c and 
clmntcter published. 

Any person who ordere it from us, and 
does not find it alt that wc claim, arc at 
liberty to at once return it to us and have 
their money refunded. 

, 10 cts. 

Specimeu_cojJies of the Jo 

"Elements of Natural Philosophy," by 
Elroy A. Avery, Ph.D.. is a book of 595 
IGmo pages, devoted to tla- .hnients of 
Xalitral Pbilosi.nin H I- p. illus- 


and lucid uf auy .suuiLii ii 
examined. In all respects it appears lo be 
an admirable work either as a class or hand 
book. Sheldon & Co., New York aud 

■ \. 

Hills Album of Riograpby and Art.'" 
ni.s K. Hill, author of iTitrs Manual. 

if examinmg. 
irious prices, 
: to the style 

■ ,Mo 

rin- ][■■ 



and ceiling 4l <.-■.■! dji.-n, mnaleur photo- 
graphy, scene paiutiTig and frame embroid- 
ery are the practical topics receiving partic- 
ular attention. The illustrations in this 
number are especiallv varied and ottraclive. 
I'll! :;: ,.n[- V[..iiimie Marks, pub- 
I, i,. .: 1 . ■-.,,. \. w York. 

.1 ■ 1 \ , I- fully up to Ibe 

iicju ■: MM! iM ■■! .1.1- III--' r.veellent magn- 
/.in.-, Il- iiMiiii^pi, . ,-. h\ F. II. Lungi'en, 
enlilUa In ih- Sucet o' the Year." is a 
beauliful work of art. • How the Brojums 
Weill down llie Crater '" is a finely illustrated 
and inirnsliii- advL-ntnre. "The Bound 
I. II I I ' I -iiies of four true, early 

. I '■■^ Mary E. Wilkins. Serial 

I M A D. T. Whitney. E- S. 

!:■ I i \\ Chanipney, aud Mar- 


iliHAM Dixon.- Few penmen during tbtJ 
past fifty years have been more generally 

and favoValilv known in New York, than 
llinmi 1 iIm-Ti, ^^lMl ili< <! "ti July 3, at the age 
1,1 iMiU i^ \ I' I 'h iti,'^ the past forty 
M ,1 ■ |m 111 i.''i '■■ I r " -rnerally known 
!i- ,1 I" nil I.I I' I ■ i.'t ;i' I ;■ V vcars ]ireviou8, 

Innii ilir .' '■!■ ( /lurin- the latter 

period 111- i ■; i -i- (lie rhief ac- 

COUUtiuil I'l '. \ . .1 I I .|.iv-^ Cnrnimny, 
at it.sbe:ni.| . . i ■ i .- ■ ii v \ rt, during 

tbalperin.l n. [i i- l-inMl lime, uijlside of 
his busines-^ limirs, to execute many fine 
spiritiiiiis of iieiimauship in form of reso- 
Inlinns, ineiinuials, etc His work was 
bold and cllVetivi', of tlie old rather than 
the new school of pen art. lie was born in 
Khinebeck, N. Y., aud came to this city 
when- a boy to seek Ids fortune. Lie secured 
employment as clerk iu a store, and being a 
poor penman, he made up bis mind to be- 




light studied 

forty yeni- 
William i: I 
Iheexpn ■ 


i> both 


of the 

111 I II. 1 1 I I I M r of the company till a 

I. 1,1 i_ *Uii-n he retircdon account 
it ' I 1 1 I . , III' was a prominent Free 
Mi-.h ml I iiM intier of Kane Lodge. His 
will di.'d luo months ago. He leaves a 
family of three sous. 


pMbliMhed Monthly^ at 91 per Ye 


S1O.00 9AS.00 ai]».Da tl76.O0 

w,. h ^u- f. ...(.I ihr^ Ylli''^' rS""'"^"* o" «!iuS'"* 



will. In all ciuci, bo etopjied biitti the aubsoriplta^ !■ 

New Yo 


The Convention. 

ScvcTiil jingcs of the present issiit arc de- 
vnifil to tlif report of the proceedings of the 
Coiivcuiidii, which we trust our readers will 
liiid iiitcrcsiiug and profilable ic-uding. n 
considcriililc portion being devoted to the 
report respecting penmiinship, and nil of it 
to the sevfiid depiintmeuts of priicticul edu- 

The Convention was one of the best at- 
lendcd, and productive of the best results of 
any yet held. Jacksonville is among the 
piejisantesl of the many flourishing cities of 
the great West, and its citizens contributed 
largely to the success of the Convention by 
their presence and particiimtion in its ses- 
sions, iiud also by their bospilablc reception 
and cntertainnicnt of the members. We are 
ipiitc sure thai all will remember with pleas- 

Ti> Ml Kii.wif, Ml i)n. Jacksonville Rnsi- 
ucss ( iiii J, , -|„ , I iiiy (he thanks of the 
Conviiiiluu ;iii: iiiiu, ror his indefatigable 
efforts fur the eoniforl and pleasure of the 

The next meeting is to be held in New 
York in July next, and we trust that our 
Western brethren will not fail of a liberal 
representation. The Jouhkal will see that 
ihey are duly reniiuded of the time and 
plaee. and their duty to answer the roll calli 
in IHSf). 

Exhibits at the Convention. 

A large room on the first floor of the Col- 
lege building was di-vi.ted exclusively to 
various exhibits, made by invitation of the 
Kxeculive Committee, such as peumanship, 
lyiie-wriliTs, books, stationery, pens, etc. 

Mivvii-s. Ivison. Blakenian, Taylor iV Co., 
of New York, exhibited a fine assortment of 
writing publications adapted to colleges and 
schools of every grade ; also, a copy of that 
great work of the nineteenth century known 
as the New Speneerian Compendium, to- 

gether with a late invention cidled the Writ- 
ing and Measuring Kuler. which presents 
indelibly printed on wood, a complete sys- 
tem of practical writing. The celebrated 
Spcncerian pens were exhil)ite<i embracing 
pens for every character and kind of writing ; 
also, penholders of the straight, oblique and 
triangular styles. 

Dr. J. C. Uryant, of BulTalo, N. Y.. hh 
new text-hooks on book-keeping, iinil liis 
"Business Man's Manimt," 

Hon. Ira Mayhew, a hook-keeping wiili 
blanks; also, Richard Nelson, of Ciminnati. 
a new work on book keeping. 

The U. S. Stenograph Co . St. Louis. Mo,, 
exhibited and explained the operation of the 

The Spcncerian Business College, Cleve- 
land. Ohio, college blanks for recording 
actual business transacti<ins. 

II. A. Stoddard. Rockford. III., an air 
brush, which is an ingenious and useful con- 
trivance, by which a tine jet of liquid india ink 
is thrown upon canvas or paper so as to pro- 
duce a line or the most delicate tint. 

Eugene E. Scbarrer, of Centralia, 111., ex- 
hibited several specimens of crayon portraits. 

George It. Ratbbun, of Omaha, Neb., ex- 
hibited several specimens of flourishing and 
lettering, one especially a large flourished 
eagle, attracted considerable attention and 
evinced much artistic skill. 

A. C. Webb, Nashville, Tenn., exhibited 
several specimens of lettering and drawing, 
which indicated thut be was a genius in the 
use of the pen. 

C. T. Smith, from the Jacksonville Busi- 
ness College, exhibited a large number of 

sj^rcilnili- -.r'ni-iiM" ^^ illing, by pupils of 

liir Dunn ]>. I I of the College. 

wliiili ■:■:■: -Illy creditable to 

Typewriters WL-ret:.\bibitcd by the Amer- 
ican Writing Machine Co. of Hartford. Cn. 

Specimens of artistic pen work, from the 
office of the Penman's Art Jouhnal, were 
exhibited, illustrative of the character and 
(luality of work made and required for 
photo-engraving and photo-lithography. In 
many instances the original drawing and the 
printed reproduction were exhibited to- 
gether, thus showing their relative appear 
ance and merit. It is possible that we have 
failed to mention some of the exhibits ; if so, 
we ask pardon, on the ground that they were 
overlooked or removed from the room before 
we made our notes. 

Michael and His Slang Advocate. 

The Admratii for August goes beyond 
mere slang and becomes villainous and libel- 
ous. Neariy two pages are devoted to gen- 
eral abuse of the Business Educators and 
Penman's Association, while two and one 
half pages are required for the torrent of 
billingsgate and falsehood thrown at the 
Penman's Ajit Journal and its editor. 

The special grievance seems to he that 
Michael was denied admission as a member 
to the convention lately heldat Jacksonville, 
as he falsely alleges through a conspiracy of 
memhere who were jeahms of his alleged 
new system of teaching writing, and by 
unconstitutional means, which every mem- 
ber of the association knows to be false. 
The grounds of his exclusion were simply 
bis previous lying and disgraceful reports 
respecting the conventions and their attend- 
ants, his generally bad character and person 
al oiTensivoness, which had rendered him to 
the entire fraternity as odious as a pole cat, 
and it was the universal conviction of the 
memberswho were informed, respecting him, 
that their own self-respect, as well as the 
dignity of their calling, demanded his dis- 
fellowship from the association. 

The scandalous and lying reports that he 
has published and sought to have published 
respecting the Washington and Rochester 
X'unvcutions, have been alike, shameful to 
himself and disgraceful to those in bis fel- 
lowship, and now that he is refused further 
membership, bis venomous falsehoods, bil- 
lingsgate and even libel, respecting the 
members, pours forth through the foul 
columns of his Adwcate, in a flood as stenchy 

During the session at Washington be 
wrote and handed the MS. to a correspon- 
dent of the Cincinnnti Qazettc. the following 
report, requesting the correspondent to give 
blm "a good show." 

liis wroD- 'fhe Apoioiry 
Michael in his more natu- 
1 1 jind the Convention is 

seen. The correspondent, without knowing 
the ntter falsity of the statements, appreci- 
ated its disgraceful character, and not only 
withheld it from publication, but brought it 
to the attention of the Convention, where 
Michael and bis i-eport at once became the 

The Wffl.hi 1/ ,. :i. i-i„<l liim in 

1 column mill I, m .i. i i,. in Mliiig of "A 

Scoimdrcl I i ■ tcrizing his 

act-H as "diiuiihLblL \ill:iian-, and hideous 

W. H. Banta. superintendent of public 
instniction tn Valparaifio. who had. on an 
early acquaintance, given Michael a favor- 
able testimonial, subsequently revoked it, 
caused a copy of the revoealitni to be 
published in the Mciisenger. It closed with 
words as follows ; 

You must not use my recommendation 
again for atiy purpose. If I said you was a 
gentleman. 1 now retract it, ;i'* your recent 
action shows conchisi\'l> ili^ii yi\ :irc a 
scoundrel. W li i;\N i \ ' 

AtOberlin, too, judi^in- in.m ii,, imic ..f 
the Slang Advocate, tin; wc-Uil educators 
and church people have been tor some time 
past in a conspiracy against this St. Mi- 
chael. In fact this conspiracy business of 
.\lirii:ii 1 - would appear to be akin to that 
whirl, ii-iiiilly exists between honest and 
1 n^ iiiniiiL' communities, and the lying, 
'In. Ml iihI plottingcriminal. It has, how - 
i - ' i. . II ;i matter of doubt with us when 
I id or beard Michael's ravings, 
w Im III, I hriielonged most to the penitentiary 
or the lunatic asylum. We have consider- 
able evidence which points strongly to tlic 
former, but when we read the endless string 

iirriiKil is (till ju-^l flow through hisAd- 

\"i. :iir irjiii ill iiii' vvvy presence of proofs 
I 111 I ii nil t|i, 111 (- -iich, It would seem that 
i>nl\ ;i liiii;iiir rimld perpetrate sucli ruiuous 

In his late effort to traduce us,he publishes 
for purpose of comparing with our more re- 
cently expressed opinion of him, a testimon- 
ial given him some years since through the 
Journal, as follows ; 




U^Z/'^.i^ ^^L 






FiK-mmW tr»t\i)umlal wiitteti and eeiU l/ij MicMfl/or j>titiHcation in tit 
subject of ridicule and contempt. Siihse- 
quciitly lit Washington and Rochester, he 
^M' iii'ii^ i.iL.n.i by all who knew of this 
iiiiin n' I n I >. K-Duville would have been 
'I'l' 'ii : <\|ielledhad he possessed 

;iii_v L.iu^iiili * I, ufii lo membership, and bad 
hiM name been vuted upon, nineteen-twenti- 
eths of the members would have voted 
against him, and the one-twentieth would 
have been those who were ignorant oflii.s 
previous record. 

But he says it was a conspiracy that kepi 
him out. It seems to have been bis misfor- 
tune to have been generally a victim of 
conspiracies for many years past. At 
Lebanon, Ohio, it seems that the lending ed- 
ucational people and even ilic .Mctliodisl 
Church, of which lie wu-- ;i iihimIht. cwi- 
apired against him. which ic^nlkd in his 
getting out from both the communily and ibe 
church. At Valpariso, lud., the citizens 
and the press again conspired against bim. 

"Prof. G. W. Michael is one of the most 
successful teachers of penmanship in the 
entire West, judging from the number of 
bis graduates occupying conspicuous posi- 
tions. D. T. Amics," 

Respecting this we would say that of all 
the persistent seekers for personal favors 
and notices through the Jouius'al, Michael 
was _from the outset the most shameless 
and persistent, and the very notice which 
he now reproduces in the Adweate was 
a very tame substitute for one written 
by himself, appending a long list of the 
names and addresses of the alleged gradu- 
ates, with an earnest appeal for its publica- 
tion as a personal and editorial notice. His 
yi'A. for this particular notice we do not 
now find, hut above is a photo-engraved 
fiw^-simile. reduced from one of many of his 
earnestly solicited notices, in bis own himd- 
writing, but which did not appear ia the 

\Vc itiKcrtisl llic substilutu as Prof. Banta 
uloiibrediy gave tiiH Icstiinouiul from 
1 and bflievhig in tlie ab 
M-Mccof proof to the contrnry that Micbarl 
h^il iiRTite, was willing to recognize tbem ; 
but tlie more rcccot dcvelopmenis of liis 
iL'cliiesH lends us to do ns Prof. Banta 
did— retract iiny favonible mcntion.and now 
brand liim as a scoundrel— who 
iiriy other known to us, disgraces nianhooil, 
1 the high calling of a teacher. 
Of the numerous other niisrepresenlationf 
111(1 fidsclioods of the Adroeatf, we have uoi 
low tinif or sjince to speak. We trust wc 
ive llir(iui,'h with this villain, if not, oui 
icxt (•hiipt<'i- will den! with some of his 

, such as would 
be stnrtlini; if jiublished. respecting any 
ti'jicbersupjiosed to have a single redeeming 
trait of character. 



Less than 400 Pages-More than 5000 Problems. 
Essentials Carefully Retained, ^ , , , 
Non-essentials Rigorously Excluded. 
Addresses the Understanding, 

Relieves the Memory. 



ir, however, yoi 

. iiirorniBtion, and fnrni ..f 
■iiding educfttloual joiiiimh 

.V. C. TtafhfT. 

J Ed'walion. 
words.— aWtoo' dupplemmt. 

e well versed In tlic needs of the flnss- 
,ipitt'itin„=— WffA Sciioot Itevlew. 

. • uwrs'-^Home and School ]Wfor. 

. Journal. 

c dull r 


ITi.e: r...n,.I..|.>, »1.50; I-hfI I «.. IVrcrnta;.'.'*, «5 rts, ■ Part II, 1 
iiid the money on return of the book. If uiisalisfaolory. withm 30 days. 

As A ItSreitKNrK book to yOUNO on INKXl-BniEKCGD TKAt'UKRa, OUIt I»] 

I nil knowledge of what he will liave to 
[iictlf. and full to the brim of examploa 
IS make it of ETeat value to teaohors 
II, ftl ; with a guarantee to 



W. J 1 
6 .nud H N. Chavl 

MiLER. President, 


■eet. Baltimoi-c, Md. 


Tliesu Colk«ges offer superior advantages. 

Tlin XICW CATALOG UK, lust IsMiiil, civu!- all iiirnriiiatliin desired concendng tlie CollegeE 

COLLEUB alone, dui 





For Sale by all Stationers atid Booksellers. 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co., 


26 John Street, New York. 

SHORTHAND BY MAIL. Business College for Sale. 

STVT,E from the brtcmnlng. Perff.T 

I guaranteed. I'erms ifor a short tiim- 

ijy lower llian cTsewhcre, Information, speci 

Ntttlsfitellou guaranteed. Terms if( 
. - jrllian elsewhere. Inform 
a and ttrsi lonoa FKBE. Address, 

<■ hundred dollam 

iSioux City, Iowa 



; BiisinetM Collrge, New Ynrk. luis 

IMBALU whose 


Teaching I>honogriit>ii 
of SejitoniliiT next. ■< 

S. S. PACKARD, 805 Broadway, New York. 


i<'aohing, and embudivs 
of the main book, and 


S. S. PACKARD, 805 Broadway, New York. 



S. S. PACKARD, Publisher, 805 Broadway, New York. 


Business College 

After you have investigated the 8UPKRIOR 
AJDTANTAGBS of otlier institutions, it will prove 
an excellent investment to inclose (3) three (2) 
two-cent stamps in a letter—containing all neces- 
sary facts— for a ciiunlur aiid an elegant 




H tf President. 


nn, MY BOOK '-^"s"^ 

A Philosophical Treatise 

of Penmanship 

lliiB bfCti itui ill IJesirahle Korni mid Eow Retails 


Articles, Lectures, Oritioisms, and 

Ali pL-rUiiiiini; 10 I'eiiiuausliip, iiiiii covering 113 

""" ""chandler H. PEIRCE, 

Keokuk, Iowa. 


2 1st Annual Session begins 
September 1 . 




wish good models offl ourithing to pr 
Iheu will be found to b« "(he Ihir 
tl.Ofi per pachago of 13. 


lug iu the shapti of a letter, and any questions ans- 
wered, on the finest quality of unruled paper. 
Pries, 30 cents. 

est uiirdd 1 i;nu [ui.'iailily \\ lito will l)e sL-nt yuu. 


KK-gunt HpeL'Imeiisiif orritandfluunshlUK.such iis 
Itirds. eagles, swans, etc., on unruled paper, whiili 
fire conceded by all to be the mo-st spiritwd work 
ever sent nut by any penman. Price, 2So. eaah. 
2 for 45 oenti. )2.S0 per Odz«ii. 


Executed ill tbe lilirliesl style of the art, and 
wiiiiliiig ttie hiiiior iif being supedor to tbe work of 
any olbcr penman in the world. Each, 25 oenti, 
2 let, (dilTeveiil) 45 centi, 3 aets idifiTerenl 1 62 canli. 
Menlloii II y„n ,i,-slre |,l»ln or ornamental styles. 




p. 0. Box, 2116, New York City. 

Shorthand Writing 


Tborongb lD,tn,oUoD In Ui. ta.t .y.t.o, i low; 

lem highly ; 

906 Broadnr. N«w 1 



Ames'* Oompendlain o 




New Spenoerian Comp* 




Am,.'. Onld. 10 Pr» 




""ftShS"""' ''' 

by the 


AmM'» Copyillpa, per 



Garfield Memorial, l»zi 
Lord'e Praver 

, pet pack 




1000 ■• ti'SlTby 


Live ogenU can, and do, mak« money, by taking ml 
loribera lot the Joubnal, and «Blliiig the abova worka. 
Saod foi OUT Special Batu to AgenU. 

D. T. AMES, 
T-t-I- 205 Broadway, New Tork. 

THlS_B«n>ER i8_ light, strouf 
by'lt i5 

and twelve istiues of the Journal 


OOLLKQK, Keokok, Ion 


Department of Penmanship. 

This Is exclusively a •fchool qf Ptiimanthip. It was made a DepiirttBent of Oberliu College la 
iKrri, and has, therefore, a standing of lO yeaw. It has constantly crown in patronage ami public 
favor, and is now fxtensively lecogniaed as the LEADING SCHOOL OF PENMANSniP IN AMERICA 

The Graduates 

Advanced Pen Art. 

It is the determination of the Principals of thia School to maintnin It as the FIUST SCIIOOI 
' PENMANSHIP IN AMEUICA. To all atnaUur penmen who have acquired some ''kill throigl 
B use or oonipendlutns, cheap schiml short cniuties. etc., wo wmilil say that your efforts are con 

Midable; but ymi cmii affnrd iiu InniriT U- il.ilK wnli ili. -■ hi iterfect helps, but Go) le direotlj 

tht; very FOI'.NTAIN IIK.M) i<\-' \Mi-,i;ii \\ ii \i '■ .iiir .iiul secure tl course of trail ing 

1 rehitive to Tia 1 e 


McKEE & HENDERSON, Oberlin Ohio 


Iiarge of Prof. J. T. Henderson fon eil 
thorough Boholarship and ripe experiencL 
I experienced book-keeper wbch cannot 

The Course 

Is based upon llie actual business plan and is divided into six deparli 
Intermediate, Advanced, Business Practice, Office, and Banking. Tl 
gives ample practice to Gvevy student who desires to become a member. 

Branches Taught. 

Business Arithmetic, Business Penmanship. Spelling, Letter Writing, Connneruial Law. The 
most approved methods of Book -keeping by Single and Double Entry, Banking, Practical Graunnar 
and Unsiness Forms, including Promissory Notes, Receipts, all kinds of Bills, Mortgages, Deeds, 
Bi.ikIs, i.'ii]ii:!iils, iirjiii-. i ii.'ik.^. Certificates, and many others. We are confident that the ad- 
vaiila^-i~ In M' aituMli I ,ii' -ii|.' i mt, and that in no other similar school, does every student receive 
ilii> Kiiiiih .i;t. M -[ .111.1 |ii I -..h,ii III ip of the Principals and Assistants that he here receives. Send 
lur 11m iipMM|.:i;r|.\l, \\n|;i.h, ;;iviiig full information. Address. 

r, i„ McKEB & HENDERSON, Oberlin, O. 


il \V. .rlv .) 



Liberal reductions to schools and the trade. A copy of cithor cdltin 
or school officers, for examination, at one-half above prices, SfHcim' 
taining testimonials and full information will be mailed free on a]i|ili<uiLi)i 

It Stands at tlie Head. 

II- sriMdNIA.! ' 



The only Instru- 


make an exact 
Copy of a picture, 
either Smaller or 
Larger, than the 
A CblM 12 yean ofaga 

ipted lor Copying 1 


ulDg th* pan, oblique or itraigbl, u Uie writor a 
for. It u better and cheaper Ibma Uio onUnary 
Mnholder. Tb« Jouekal will lend one tamplt 

Penmen's and Artists' Supplies. 

On TMelpl of the prices annexwd. wo will forward by 

iwhlp. , 

AuiM't Copy-alipe, fur instrnotioD aad pr«otioe lu 

writing, per •hwt. oonUiniog forty azeroiMt 10 

Fifty iheeti (flfty full Mtj oT ooploB) 3 00 

Briitol Board, 3-»hMt thlok, SSxSS Id., pet ibeet . . 50 

Biaok Cardboard, 22k28, for whit* Ink. ..'...".. ^! 50 

Black Card*, per 100 25 

BlMk Cards, per tboound, by axpreM S 00 

par tbeet, qoln, 

by mall, by ex. 

Wbalman'sDtawbppaper, lio(-j>rMi, 15k30..|.I5 |1 20 

••^ •; ;' afisio!". !65 ? oo 

• 1,000. by ex^reM . 3 00 
Wlnsor Sc Newlon'e Superior Sop.' India Ink Stlok I 00 

Poor packs, 100 cards 60 

OUlon's 303 8t«el Pens, pot gTois ' 1 25 

BngTOMing Pens for ietliring, p«rdox...' 95 

Orow-qoUI Pan, very ftue. fat drawing, dos 7iS 

WUllams's and Packard's Q«m* 5 00 

Payson, Danton Si Snribnet's Manoal 1 25 

Spoon Rubber, 2xS In., very saparior 50 

No:2 •■■ 2^x31 "^ ;;:::::::::::;:::::;:::::: its 

No.3 " 3X4 " 850 

8t*>ne Olotb, one yerf wide, any lengtk per yard, 

b™ud.,p*i gallon '..!'.!'..'.*'/.". ..'° 6O0 

^r No gv>ods sent by maU antU oash has bMB re 

reotlTe aOantion. DAHI£L T, AJtES, 



LAPILINUM <.Stone-Cloth\ 

Black Diamond Slating. 

The But Liquid Slating {loitkout exception) foi 

Wall* and Wooden Blackboards. 



PiDt,|1.35j Quart, (2; Half-Oallon, C3.50; QalloD, t6.50. 

the nnmlrar oaually B)>p1ied. 

Uied and gives Fer/ect Satisfaction in 

Colnmbia College (School of Mines) - New Totk CUy 

College of the City of New Yofk - - ;; •' || 
Lafayette College EastoD, Pa. 

Stevens InstJtnle of Twohnology - - ■ Hobokoo, N. J. 

University of MIstiulppi Oxford, Miss. 

Slate Normal Sobool Oshkosh.Wii. 

Long Island HospiUl Medical College - Brooklyn,' N. T. 
New York Slook Exchange; New York Cotton Ex- 
change; Now York Produce Exchange; New York 

igbkeepsie, N. T. 

tford,' Ct. 
igatook. Ct. 



1 . . - . Size, 2x3 feel .... |1 .« 

Thii i» universally admitted to be the best 
%aterial for blackboard in use. 



rionvlUe, Onondaga County, Nevr York, 

Otneral Ntwtpaper Subicriptitm Agent, and 

vid&Tt&id/ vtn 


School of the kind In Americu. KleKantly fitted rooms. Unexcelled advantages in either 
iial or PenmanBbip Departments, clrculan) free, 

BEraklS^SiaT,. M CLARK & BENNETT, Proprietors. 

Central Pen-Holder. 

I in l)U!iiness will pteaee send cash in advan 
:s Long $0-^5 

Respectfully submitted, 

M. S. LAWRENCE, 129 Pearl Street, Bo!=ton. 




Adapted for use with or withoat Text-Book, 

and the only aet reoonunended to 



Bryant & Stratton 

ORC" " 





Sent Post-paid on r«o«lpt of 25 oenta. 


119 AUD 121 William Strkbt, Nbw York. 



Stainpi laken. Olul 

Writing and Measuring Ruler. 

seping ever preHol and ounve 

writiiig. Addreas PkziHjui'8 Art Jouknal. 

205 Broadway, New York. 

Uugbl. personally or by mall. A more tLoroach 

nansblp, 2So. Circnlan fr«e 

U REED, Bock CrMk, OUo. 

Shading T Square. 

Detigner and Drafaman, Am. 1 

D. T. AHBA, Buy— D«ir Sir -. One of voor pateol 1 
squares has been Id constant tua by me for some tlnn 

biailohes of drawing to wbiob 1^ have appUed II 

Designer and D 


putting tl 

Something Entirely New ! 




J. C. BRYANT, M. D., 

lidentof theBryaiil 



pi;bi,isiied in three pahts : 

Erementary, 104 pages, Price, $ .80 
Commerciar, 160 1.50 

Counting-House,3l2 2.50 



■•■ and advanced ideas 
ri of tiie princlpiea and 

The Business Man's Commercial Law and 
Business Forms Combined, $2. 

Tlie liest test-book for ColleKea and Scliools ever 

■>A SthDol TliBfuDiihly Kiiiiifpfil fof Oice Training. •;• 

Book-Keeping by Actual Business Practice. 


OF CiTT liNE. 





The Automatic Shading Pen 

Makes a Shaded Mark of Two Colors at a 
Single Strofce, Sample Set of three eizea. 
by mail. $1 Circular and sample writtriff 
free. 5 13 J. W. STOAKBS, Mflaii, O. 

Instruction by Mail. 

B. F. KKr.LEY, Peninan, 

Upt^\vii Office of the Prhman's Abt JonRNAi,. 
So8. 4 And WoBt 14th Street, New York, 

A Course of Five Lessons in Penmanship, 

by mail, for $5. 
A Criticism of I,ett«r or Specimen of Writing, 
with suKgesilona for improvement, $1. 
Samples of Card, or Copy Writing, 

for 35 cents. 


DOYS ! 1 \ya.,t boys lo 
U guilt wnltini canls. 



L. ^ADAUASZ. I', t). 





COMPLETE b,,nail fiTVrTST),! „iaJ!^^,tTliea^ 

R, H, INGERSOLL, fex.'.'S.eSop"" 


Spencerian Compendium 

Recognized Aiitliority foi> 
Tne Learner, The Card-Writer, 

The Adept, The SIgn-Writer, 

The Teacher, The Pen-Artist, 

The Engrosser, The Book-keeper. 

The Engraver, The Connoisseur 

Engraved on Steel, from Actual Pen-Work, 
s^'EisraEiE.iJvisr 7vtjth:os.s. 

1 of llli 
.ngt>, most varied adaptiii 

o present a Cyclorcilin of Pcii-Arl in its widejit 
t pci-fect execution. 

C ARD- WRITING.— Oaa doien aample caitU beaati 
fall)- w(itt«D. -JAc. Sand two 2-Mat alAmna tor Piii>e 
Llat aad Swnplaaof Carda from ooi Card'Writlna auJ 
Onlar DepaniDBnt. SatitfaptlOD rnaiaoiced 
0-lS WEBSTER Jt I&BD GencTa. Ohio 

THE COMPENDIUM Oomprises Eight Parts. 

Part I.— Elegant Script Forms, particularly adapted for Book-keepers and Com- 
mercial Colleges. 

Part II.— Devoted to Off-hand Flourishing. 

Part III.— Bold and Striking Forms for Sign-writers. 

Part IV.— Off-hand Spencerian Capitals, mostly new forms. 

Part V.— Great variety of Lettering, from the Simi)lest Marking Alphabets to the most 
Elahorate Initials. 

Part VI.— A Complete Course of Sixteen Lessons in Plain, Practical Writing with 
Special Series of Business Forms. 

Part VII.— Varieties of Writing, including Spencer Brothers' Abbreviated Hand, 
Italian Script and Intricate Caps, and Celebrated Back-hands. 

Part VIIL- Of special interest lo Business Men, Professional Designers and Penmen, 
containing double-page Graduated Scale for Construction of Roman 
Capitals, Etc. 

Price ol the Parts, Together or Seisaratelv, 
Post-paid, 60 Cents Each. 




Ivison, PJlakeman, Taylor, •& Co. 

753 and 755 Broadway, New York. ; 



It tjt upon a tjKtroi'ijhly ifysk'maUc and 

educational basis. 
// i» adapted to the aHiiiil and practical 

needs of schoou. 
It iM ill iifordtiiice with the most rational 

and approved methods of untcfi- 


It him Htood tlie test af school-room 
use uhrre all otlitm hiiK failed. 

ho tha viim f tirtt olt ii n i com- 
prehensive in it^ scope ami ii 
practical m iin results™ KRU- 

Drawl nff M now regarded a» tme of the 
enmnttal and organic elements of pah 
It nrhool tdiiriition 

^ 1 fij^t I tj n, I fini/ ihoilil bi id 1 1 d nth 

'Mitwii Of KRusrs. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 

York, Roxtou, Chicago, San FranciBco. 


Washington, D. C, eor. 9th and D Streets. 

i"T!f'^^^°^''^ ambitions young men and women from aU parts of the c 

1 in the common English bniuches, or who have taken a soientlfio or < 

tlie practical business coui-se in tlils CoUege, preparing for bueS or ( 

""' '■ -=- - faniilies, for five n 

U-grounded in 
t positions, in from t 

tuition, ... _. , „ 

and type-writers; time required, 

81S5. Department for triiining teachers of penmanshiV 

ery, etc., need not exceed 8100. 

The National Capital itself with its halls of Congress 

I. giving fall Information, i 

il departmenta for qualifying 
for boarti, tuition, etc., nt 
:, three months; board, tuition, 

need not exceed 

, parks, with their noble : 

HENRY C. SPENCER. Principal 



805 Broadway, 'New York. 




<* MY FAVORITE •■ PEN uaA t 

IVI For iotrodaotioo. 35 mdU p«r \ rmm. Ai 
PiirKCE'B Butuncss Oollroi. E«okak, Iowb. 


S. S. PACKARD, Preaideni 

a PATRICK. Artist Penman, 

I tpwlalty. Clronlv fr**. 

The Highest Award 


NEW oniaEAKS. 

lifii W.19 written luid telei:raplLeil to the Collej 
the Si.ip.?nntendeiil nf i\w Department of Ed 
tioti as ^iicjn as the award was made, which wi 
-t bi?fore the close of the Exposition, in the la 

riii> is but anotlier \-ictory achieved for the No 

( i^incy Evening Juiirnal, Jut 
>f T) L MusselmAU priuclpul and 
I t) f highest 

illete I 
display of the best pen 
thmL JLHi. thai firvt place \mis t > 

Miia elrnan, and ttu8 is but a 

15c. 15c. 15c. 

ill i,MTit Urllliant Envelopes, assorted Designs anil 
liiii* ; iistil by all Professional Teachers, Penmen 
iiiid ( -ill.-i.-e.'^; also, our large 17x4J Engraving. 
shi.wing over 100 Latest Stvles of Cnrda, with 
New Samples. Special Price I.Isf, containing 
Our Fall and Whiter PrU.*. wonderfully reduced. 
Eight ply Bevel, $2; (iuld Eilge, §1; Fine Pen- 
men's Cream Bristol. JSc. per lOOii, Pens, Inks. 

JSr. M CA.RD CO., 

75 and 77 Nassau Street, 


!D.— A sItuHtiuii as Teacher of Pennia; 
. in City Public Schools. Have hiul l.» 
e. Correspondence with Boards of Edi 
lii'ited. Address, for InfonnuUon ati 
, PENMAN, P. O. Lock Box IftH, Re 


i«n at »2. By using iboM ibevU My .p»ciin7o w piS 


r York. 

F*rinter and Stationer, 

Opp. Tribune Building. Ne\v Yorl<